Following are reference books used in the preparation of The Associated Press Stylebook. They are the accepted reference sources for material not covered by the Stylebook.

First reference for spelling, style, usage and foreign geographic names:

Webster’s New World College Dictionary, Third Edition, Macmillan, New York.

Second reference for spelling, style and usage:

Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged; G. & C. Merriam Co., Springfield, Mass.

Second reference for foreign geographic names:

National Geographic Atlas of the World, National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.

First reference for place names in the 50 states:

National 5-Digit ZIP Code and Post Office Directory; U.S. Postal Service, Washington, D.C.

For aircraft names:

Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft; Jane’s Yearbooks, London, and Franklin Watts Inc., New York.

For military ships:

Jane’s Fighting Ships; Jane’s Yearbooks, London, and Franklin Watts Inc., New York.

For non-military ships:

Lloyd’s Register of Shipping; Lloyd’s Register of Shipping Trust Corp. Ltd., London.

For railroads:

Official Railway Guide — Freight Service, and Official Railway Guide — Passenger Service, Travel Edition; Official Railway Guide, New York.

For federal government questions:

Official Congressional Directory; U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington.

For foreign government questions:

Political Handbook of the World; McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

For the formal name of a business:

Standard & Poor’s Register of Corporations, Directors and Executives; Standard & Poor’s Corp., New York.

For religion questions:

Handbook of Denominations in the United States; Abingdon Press, Nashville, Tenn., and New York.

Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches; Abingdon Press, Nashville, Tenn., and New York, for the National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S.A., New York.

Other references consulted in the preparation of the AP Stylebook:

Bernstein, Theodore M. The Careful Writer: A Modern Guide to English Usage. Atheneum, 1965.

Bernstein, Theodore M. More Language That Needs Watching. Channel Press, 1962.

Bernstein, Theodore M. Watch Your Language. Atheneum, 1958.

Cappon, Rene J. The Word. The Associated Press, 1982; second edition, 1991.

Follett, Wilson (edited and completed by Jacques Barzun). Modern American Usage. Hill & Wang, 1966.

Fowler, H.W. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage. Oxford University Press, 1965.

The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th Edition. University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Morris, William and Morris, Mary. Harper Dictionary of Contemporary Usage. Harper & Row, 1975; second edition, 1985.

Shaw, Harry. Dictionary of Problem Words & Expressions. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1975.

Skillin, Marjorie E. and Gay, Robert M. Words Into Type. Prentice-Hall Inc., 1974.

Strunk, William Jr. and White, E.B. The Elements of Style, second edition. The Macmillan Co., 1972.

Also consulted were the stylebooks of the Boston Globe, Indianapolis News, Kansas City Star, Los Angeles Times, Miami Herald, Milwaukee Journal, Milwaukee Sentinel, Newsday, New York Times, Wilmington (Del.) News-Journal, and the U.S. Government Printing Office.