eachTakes a singular verb.
each other, one anotherTwo people look at each other.
More than two look at one another.
Either phrase may be used when the number is indefinite: We help each other. We help one another.
earl, countessSee nobility.
earthGenerally lowercase; capitalize when used as the proper name of the planet. She is down to earth. How does the pattern apply to Mars, Jupiter, Earth, the sun and the moon? The astronauts returned to Earth. He hopes to move heaven and earth.
earthquakesHundreds of earthquakes occur each year. Most are so small they cannot be felt.
The best source for information on major earthquakes is the National Earthquake Information Service operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Golden, Colo.
Earthquake magnitudes are measures of earthquake size calculated from ground motion recorded on seismographs. The Richter scale, named for Dr. Charles F. Richter, is no longer widely used.
Magnitudes are usually reported simply as magnitude 6.7, for example, without specifying the scale being used. The various scales differ only slightly from one another.
In the first hours after a quake, earthquake size should be reported as a preliminary magnitude of 6.7, for example. Early estimates are often revised, and it can be several days before seismologists calculate a final figure.
Magnitudes are measured on several different scales. The most commonly used measure is the moment magnitude, related to the area of the fault on which an earthquake occurs, and the amount the ground slips.
The magnitude scale being used should be specified only when necessary. An example would be when two centers are reporting different magnitudes because they are using different scales.
With each scale, every increase of one number, say from 5.5 to 6.5, means that the quake’s magnitude is 10 times as great. Theoretically, there is no upper limit to the scales.
A quake of magnitude 2.5 to 3 is the smallest generally felt by people.
—Magnitude 4: The quake can cause moderate damage.
—Magnitude 5: The quake can cause considerable damage.
—Magnitude 6: The quake can cause severe damage.
—Magnitude 7: A major earthquake, capable of widespread, heavy damage.
—Magnitude 8: An earthquake capable of tremendous damage.
NOTABLE QUAKES: Earthquakes noted for both their magnitude and the amount of damage they caused include:
—Shensi province of China, January 1556: Killed 830,000 people, the largest number of fatalities on record from an earthquake.
—Tokyo and Yokohama, Japan, September 1923: Magnitude later computed as 8.3. The quake and subsequent fires destroyed most of both cities, killing an estimated 200,000 people. Until the China quake of 1976, this was the highest fatality toll in the 20th century.
—San Francisco, April 1906: Moment magnitude later computed as 7.9. The quake and subsequent fire were blamed for an estimated 700 deaths.
—Alaska, March 1964: Magnitude 7.5. Killed 114 people.
—Guatemala, February 1976: Magnitude 7.5. Authorities reported more than 234,000 deaths.
—Hopeh province of northern China, July 28, 1976: Magnitude 8.0. A government document later said 655,237 people were killed and 779,000 injured. The fatality total was second only to the toll in the Shensi quake of 1556.
—Mexico, Sept. 19, 1985: A quake registered at 8.1 left 9,500 people dead.
—Kobe, Japan, Jan. 17, 1995: A 7.2 magnitude quake killed nearly 5,300 people in collapsed buildings and fires.
OTHER TERMS: The word temblor (not tremblor) is a synonym for earthquake.
The word epicenter refers to the point on the earth’s surface above the underground center, or focus, of an earthquake.
east, easternSee the directions and regions entry.
EasterIn the computation used by the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church and by Protestant churches, it falls on the first Sunday after the first full moon that occurs on or after March 21. If the full moon falls on a Sunday, Easter is the next Sunday.
Easter may fall, therefore, between March 22 and April 25 inclusive.
Eastern EuropeNo longer a separate political unit, but can be used in specific references to the region. Use only in historic sense. (Also Western Europe.)
Eastern HemisphereThe half of the Earth made up primarily of Africa, Asia, Australia and Europe.
Eastern Orthodox churchesThe term applies to a group of churches that have roots in the earliest days of Christianity and do not recognize papal authority over their activities.
Churches in this tradition were part of the undivided Christendom that existed until the Great Schism of 1054. At that time, many of the churches in the western half of the old Roman Empire accorded the bishop of Rome supremacy over other bishops. The result was a split between eastern and western churches.
The autonomous churches that constitute Eastern Orthodoxy are organized along mostly national lines. They recognize the patriarch of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) as their leader. He convenes councils, but his authority is otherwise that of a “first among equals.”
Eastern orthodox churches today count about 200 million members. They include the Greek Orthodox Church and the Russian Orthodox Church.
In the United States, organizational lines are based on the national backgrounds of various ethnic groups. The largest is the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America, with about 2 million members. Next is the Orthodox Church in America, with about 1 million members, including people of Bulgarian, Romanian, Russian and Syrian descent.
The churches have their own disciplines on matters such as married clergy — a married man may be ordained, but a priest may not marry after ordination.
Some of these churches call the arch- bishop who leads them a metropolitan, others use the term patriarch. He normally heads the principal archdiocese within a nation. Working with him are other archbishops, bishops, priests and deacons.
Archbishops and bishops frequently follow a monastic tradition in which they are known only by a first name. When no last name is used, repeat the title before the sole name in subsequent references.
Some forms: Metropolitan Theodosius, archbishop of Washington and metropolitan of America and Canada. On second reference: Metropolitan Theodosius. Archbishop may be replaced by the Most Rev. on first reference. Bishop may be replaced by the Rt. Rev. on first reference.
Use the Rev. before the name of a priest on first reference.
Eastern Rite churches
The term applies to a group of Catholic churches that are organized along ethnic lines traceable to the churches established during the earliest days of Christianity.
These churches accept the authority of the pope, but they have considerable autonomy in ritual and questions of discipline such as married clergy — a married man may be ordained, but marriage is not permitted after ordination.
Worldwide membership totals more than 10 million.
Among the churches of the Eastern Rite are the Antiochean-Maronite, Armenian Catholic, Byzantine-Byeloruss- ian, Byzantine-Russian, Byzantine-Ruthenian, Byzantine-Ukrainian and Chaldean Catholic.
SeeRoman Catholic Church.
Eastern ShoreA region on the east side of Chesapeake Bay, including parts of Maryland and Virginia.
Eastern Shore is not a synonym for East Coast.
Eastern Standard Time (EST), Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)See time zones.
ecologyThe study of the relationship between organisms and their surroundings. It is not synonymous with environment.
Right: The laboratory is studying the ecology of man and the desert.
Wrong: Even so simple an undertaking as maintaining a lawn affects ecology. (Use environment instead.)
editorCapitalize editor before a name only when it is an official corpor-ate or organizational title. Do not capitalize as a job description.
editorial, newsIn references to a newspaper, reserve news for the news department, its employees and news articles. Reserve editorial for the department that prepares the editorial page, its employees and articles that appear on the editorial page.
editor in chiefNo hyphens. Capitalize when used as a formal title before a name: Editor in Chief Horace Greeley.
effectSee the affect, effect entry.
Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.Not Elgin.
eitherUse it to mean one or the other, not both.
Right: She said to use either door.
Wrong: There were lions on either side of the door.
Right: There were lions on each side of the door. There were lions on both sides of the door.
either...or, neither...norThe nouns that follow these words do not constitute a compound subject; they are alternate subjects and require a verb that agrees with the nearer subject:
Neither they nor he is going. Neither he nor they are going.
El AlIsrael Airlines. An El Al air-liner is acceptable in any reference.
Headquarters in Tel Aviv.
elderFor its use in religious contexts, see the entry for an individual’s denomination.
elderlyUse this word carefully and sparingly.
It is appropriate in generic phrases that do not refer to specific individuals: concern for the elderly, a home for the elderly, etc.
If the intent is to show that an individual’s faculties have deteriorated, cite a graphic example and give attribution for it.
Apply the same principle to terms such as senior citizen.
-electAlways hyphenate and lowercase: President-elect Reagan.
Election DayThe first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
election returnsUse figures, with commas every three digits starting at the right and counting left. Use the word to (not a hyphen) in separating different totals listed together: Jimmy Carter defeated Gerald Ford 40,827,292 to 39,146,157 in 1976 (this is the actual final figure).
Use the word votes if there is any possibility that the figures could be confused with a ratio: Nixon defeated McGovern 16 votes to 3 votes in Dixville Notch.
Do not attempt to create adjectival forms such as the 40,827,292- 39,146,157 vote.
Electoral CollegeBut electoral vote(s).
electrocardiogramEKG is acceptable on second reference.
ellipsisSee entry in Punctuation chapter.
El SalvadorThe use of the article in the name of the nation helps to distinguish it from its capital, San Salvador.
Use Salvadoran(s) in references to citizens of the nation.
embargoSee the boycott, embargo entry.
embargo timesSee release times.
embarrass, embarrassing, embarrassed, embarrassment
embassyAn embassy is the official residence of an ambassador in a foreign country and the office that handles the political relations of one nation with another.
A consulate, the residence of a consul in a foreign city, handles the commercial affairs and personal needs of citizens of the appointing country.
Capitalize with the name of a nation; lowercase without it: the French Embassy, the U.S. Embassy, the embassy.
emcee, emceed, emceeingA colloquial verb and noun best avoided. A phrase such as: He was the master of ceremonies is preferred.
emeritusThis word often is added to formal titles to denote that individuals who have retired retain their rank or title.
When used, place emeritus after the formal title, in keeping with the general practice of academic institutions: Professor Emeritus Samuel Eliot Morison, Dean Emeritus Courtney C. Brown, Publisher Emeritus Barnard L. Colby.
Or: Samuel Eliot Morison, professor emeritus of history; Courtney C. Brown, dean emeritus of the faculty of business; Barnard L. Colby, publisher emeritus.
emigrate, immigrateOne who leaves a country emigrates from it.
One who comes into a country immigrates.
The same principle holds for emigrant and immigrant.
Emmy, EmmysThe annual awards by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences.
EmpirinA trademark for a brand of aspirin compound.
enactSee the adopt, approve, enact, pass entry.
encyclopediaBut follow the spelling of formal names: Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Energy Research and Development AdministrationIt no longer exists. Its functions were transferred in 1977 to the Department of Energy.
engine, motorAn engine develops its own power, usually through internal combustion or the pressure of air, steam or water passing over vanes attached to a wheel: an airplane engine, an automobile engine, a jet engine, a missile engine, a steam engine, a turbine engine.
A motor receives power from an outside source: an electric motor, a hydraulic motor.
EnglandLondon stands alone in datelines. Use England after the names of other English communities in datelines.
Seedatelines and United Kingdom.
English muffin, English setter
EnovidA trademark for a brand of birth control pill. It also may be called norethynodrel with mestranol.
enquire, enquiryThe preferred words are inquire, inquiry.
enroll, enrolled, enrolling
en routeAlways two words.
ensignSee military titles.
ensure, insureUse ensure to mean guarantee: Steps were taken to ensure accuracy.
Use insure for references to insurance: The policy insures his life.
entitledUse it to mean a right to do or have something. Do not use it to mean titled.
Right: She was entitled to the promotion.
Right: The book was titled “Gone With the Wind.”
enumerationsSee examples in the dash and periods entries.
envelopOther verb forms: enveloping, enveloped. But: envelope (n.)
Environmental Protection AgencyEPA is acceptable on second reference.
envoyNot a formal title. Lowercase.
epicenterThe point on the earth’s surface above the underground center, or focus, of an earthquake.
Episcopal, EpiscopalianEpiscopal is the adjective form; use Episcopalian only as a noun referring to a member of the Episcopal Church: She is an Episcopalian. But: She is an Episcopal priest.
Capitalize Episcopal when referring to the Episcopal Church. Use lowercase when the reference is simply to a body governed by bishops.
Episcopal ChurchAcceptable in all references for the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, the U.S. national church that is a member of the Anglican Communion.
The church is governed nationally by two bodies — the permanent Executive Council and the General Convention, which meets every three years.
After the council, the principal organizational units are, in descending order of size, provinces, dioceses or missionary districts, local parishes and local missions.
The National Council is composed of bishops, priests, laymen and laywomen. One bishop is designated the leader and holds the formal title of presiding bishop.
The General Convention has final authority in matters of policy and doctrine. All acts must pass both of its houses — the House of Bishops and the House of Deputies. The latter is composed of an equal number of clergy and lay delegates from each diocese.
A province is composed of several dioceses. Each has a provincial synod made up of a house of bishops and a house of deputies. The synod’s primary duty is to coordinate the work of the church in its area.
Within a diocese, a bishop is the principal official. He is helped by the Diocesan Convention, which consists of all the clergy in the diocese and lay representatives from each parish.
The parish or local church is governed by a vestry, composed of the pastor and lay members elected by the congregation.
The clergy consists of bishops, priests, deacons and brothers. A priest who heads a parish is described as a rector rather than a pastor.
For first reference to bishops, use Bishop before the individual’s name: Bishop John M. Allin. An acceptable alternative in referring to U.S. bishops is the Rt. Rev. The designation the Most Rev. is used before the names of the archbishops of Canterbury and York.
For first references to men, use the Rev. before the name of a priest, Deacon before the name of a deacon, Brother before the name of a brother. On second reference, use only the last name.
For first reference to women, use the Rev. before the name of a priest, Deacon before the name of a deacon. On second reference, use Miss, Mrs. or Ms. or no title before the woman’s last name, depending on her preference.
SeeAnglican Communion and religious titles.
epochSee the historical periods and events entry.
equalAn adjective without comparative forms.
When people speak of a more equal distribution of wealth, what is meant is more equitable.
equal, equaled, equaling
Equal Employment Opportunity CommissionEEOC is acceptable on second reference.
equally asDo not use the words together; one is sufficient.
Omit the equally shown here in parentheses: She was (equally) as wise as Marilyn.
Omit the as shown here in parentheses: She and Marilyn were equally (as) liberal.
Equal Rights AmendmentERA is acceptable on second reference.
Ratification required approval by three-fourths (38) of the 50 states by June 30, 1982. Ratification failed when only 35 states had approved the amendment by the deadline. The original deadline was March 22, 1979, but was extended by Congress.
Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.
Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
Section 3. This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification.
equal time, fairness doctrineEqual time applies to the Federal Communications Commission regulation that requires a radio or television station to provide a candidate for political office with air time equal to any time that an opponent receives beyond the coverage of news events.
If a station broadcasts material that takes a stand on an issue, the FCC’s fairness doctrine may require it to give advocates of a different position an opportunity to respond.
ERAAcceptable in all references to baseball’s earned run average.
Acceptable on second reference for Equal Rights Amendment.
erasSee the historical periods and events entry.
escalatorFormerly a trademark, now a generic term.
escalator clauseA clause in a contract providing for increases or decreases in wages, prices, etc., based on fluctuations in the cost of living, production, expenses, etc.
escapeeThe preferred words are escaped convict or fugitive.
Eskimo, EskimosSome, especially in Canada, prefer the term Inuit for these native peoples of northern North America.
espressoThe coffee is espresso, not expresso.
essential clauses, nonessential clausesThese terms are used in this book instead of restrictive clause and nonrestrictive clause to convey the distinction between the two in a more easily remembered manner.
Both types of clauses provide additional information about a word or phrase in the sentence.
The difference between them is that the essential clause cannot be eliminated without changing the meaning of the sentence — it so restricts the meaning of the word or phrase that its absence would lead to a substantially different interpretation of what the author meant.
The nonessential clause, however, can be eliminated without altering the basic meaning of the sentence — it does not restrict the meaning so significantly that its absence would radically alter the author’s thought.
PUNCTUATION: An essential clause must not be set off from the rest of a sentence by commas. A nonessential clause must be set off by commas.
The presence or absence of commas provides the reader with critical information about the writer’s intended meaning. Note the following examples:
—Reporters who do not read the stylebook should not criticize their editors. (The writer is saying that only one class of reporters, those who do not read the stylebook, should not criticize their editors. If the who ... stylebook phrase were deleted, the meaning of the sentence would be changed substantially.)
—Reporters, who do not read the stylebook, should not criticize their editors. (The writer is saying that all reporters should not criticize their editors. If the who ... stylebook phrase were deleted, this meaning would not be changed.)
USE OF WHO, THAT, WHICH: When an essential or nonessential clause refers to a human being or animal with a name, it should be introduced by who or whom. (See thewho, whom entry.) Do not use commas if the clause is essential to the meaning; use them if it is not.
That is the preferred pronoun to introduce clauses that refer to an inanimate object or an animal without a name. Which is the only acceptable pronoun to introduce a nonessential clause that refers to an inanimate object or an animal without a name.
The pronoun which occasionally may be substituted for that in the introduction of an essential clause that refers to an inanimate object or an animal without a name. In general, this use of which should appear only when that is used as a conjunction to introduce another clause in the same sentence: He said Monday that the part of the army which suffered severe casualties needs reinforcement.
Seethat (conjunction) for guidelines on the use of that as a conjunction.
essential phrases, nonessential phrasesThese terms are used in this book instead of restrictive phrase and nonrestrictive phrase to convey the distinction between the two in a more easily remembered manner.
The underlying concept is the one that also applies to clauses:
An essential phrase is a word or group of words critical to the reader’s understanding of what the author had in mind.
A nonessential phrase provides more information about something. Although the information may be helpful to the reader’s comprehension, the reader would not be misled if the information were not there.
PUNCTUATION: Do not set an essential phrase off from the rest of a sentence by commas:
We saw the award-winning movie “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.” (No comma, because many movies have won awards, and without the name of the movie the reader would not know which movie was meant.)
They ate dinner with their daughter Julie. (Because they have more than one daughter, the inclusion of Julie’s name is critical if the reader is to know which daughter is meant.)
Set off nonessential phrases by commas:
We saw the 1975 winner in the Academy Award competition for best movie, “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.” (Only one movie won the award. The name is informative, but even without the name no other movie could be meant.)
They ate dinner with their daughter Julie and her husband, David. (Julie has only one husband. If the phrase read and her husband David, it would suggest that she had more than one husband.)
The company chairman, Henry Ford II, spoke. (In the context, only one person could be meant.)
Indian corn, or maize, was harvested. (Maize provides the reader with the name of the corn, but its absence would not change the meaning of the sentence.)
DESCRIPTIVE WORDS: Do not confuse punctuation rules for nonessential clauses with the correct punctuation when a nonessential word is used as a descriptive adjective. The distinguishing clue often is the lack of an article or pronoun:
Right: Julie and husband Jeff went shopping. Julie and her husband, Jeff, went shopping.
Right: Company Chairman Henry Ford II made the announcement. The company chairman, Henry Ford II, made the announcement.
EurasianOf European and Asian descent.
European CommunitySee European Union.
European UnionThe European Union, based in Brussels, Belgium, was created by the Treaty on European Union signed in February 1992 and took effect Nov. 1, 1993. Its six founding members are France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Other members are Denmark, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom, with Austria, Sweden and Finland joining as of Jan. 1, 1995.
evangelicalSee religious movements.
Evangelical Friends AllianceSee Quakers.
evangelismSee religious movements.
evangelistCapitalize only in reference to the men credited with writing the Gospels: The four Evangelists were Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.
In lowercase, it means a preacher who makes a profession of seeking conversions.
eveCapitalize when used after the name of a holiday: New Year’s Eve, Christmas Eve. But: the eve of Christmas.
every day(adv.) everyday (adj.) She goes to work every day. He wears everyday shoes.
every one, everyoneTwo words when it means each individual item: Every one of the clues was worthless.
One word when used as a pronoun meaning all persons: Everyone wants his life to be happy. (Note that everyone takes singular verbs and pronouns.)
ex-Use no hyphen for words that use ex- in the sense of out of:
Hyphenate when using ex- in the sense of former:
Do not capitalize ex- when attached to a formal title before a name: ex-President Nixon. The prefix modifies the entire term: ex-New York Gov. Nelson Rockefeller; not New York ex-Gov.
Usually former is better.
ExcedrinA trademark for a brand of aspirin compound.
exceptSee the accept, except entry.
exclamation pointSee entry in Punctuation chapter.
executeTo execute a person is to kill him in compliance with a military order or judicial decision.
See theassassin, killer, murderer entry and the homicide, murder, manslaughter entry.
executive branchAlways lowercase.
executive directorCapitalize before a name only if it is a formal corporate or organizational title.
Executive MansionCapitalize only in references to the White House.
Executive Protective ServiceIt is now the Secret Service Uniformed Division.
executorUse for both men and women.
Not a formal title. Always lowercase.
exorcise, exorcismNot exorcize.
expel, expelled, expelling
ExplorersSee Boy Scouts.
Export-Import Bank of the United StatesExport-Import Bank is acceptable in all references; Ex-Im Bank is acceptable on second reference.
Headquarters is in Washington.
extol, extolled, extolling
extra-Do not use a hyphen when extra means outside of unless the prefix is followed by a word beginning with a or a capitalized word:
Follow extra- with a hyphen when it is part of a compound modifier describing a condition beyond the usual size, extent or degree:
extra-base hit extra-large book
extra-dry drink extra-mild taste
extrasensory perceptionESP is acceptable on second reference.
extreme unctionSee sacraments.
Exxon Corp.Formerly Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey).
Headquarters is in New York.
eye, eyed, eyeing
eye to eye, eye-to-eyeHyphenate when used as a compound modifier: an eye-to-eye confrontation.