Jacuzzi Trademark for a brand of whirlpool products. Generic terms are whirlpool bath or whirlpool spa.

jail Not interchangeable with prison. See the prison, jail entry.

Jamaica rum Not Jamaican rum.

Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft, Jane’s Fighting Ships The reference sources for questions about aircraft and military ships not covered in this book.

The reference for non-military ships is Lloyd’s Register of Shipping.

January See months.

Japan Airlines JAL is acceptable on second reference.

Headquarters is in Tokyo.

Japan Current A warm current flowing from the Philippine Sea east of Taiwan and northeast past Japan.

jargon The special vocabulary and idioms of a particular class or occupational group.

In general, avoid jargon. When it is appropriate in a special context, include an explanation of any words likely to be unfamiliar to most readers.

See dialect and word selection.

Jaycees Members of the U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce, affiliated with the worldwide body, Junior Chamber International.

See the fraternal organizations and service clubs and Junior Chamber of Commerce entries.

J.C. Penney Co. Inc. Headquarters is in Dallas.

jeep, Jeep Lowercase the military vehicle.

Capitalize if referring to the rugged, four-wheel drive civilian vehicle so trademarked.

Jehovah’s Witnesses The denomination was founded in Pittsburgh in 1872 by Charles Taze Russell, a former Congregationalist layman.

Witnesses do most of their work through three legal corporations: the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York Inc., and, in England, the International Bible Students Association. A governing body consisting largely of the principal officers of the corporations oversees the denomination.

U.S. membership is listed at more than 900,000.

Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that they adhere to the oldest religion on earth, the worship of Almighty God revealed in the Bible as Jehovah.

They regard civil authority as necessary and obey it “as long as its laws do not contradict God’s law.” Witnesses refuse to bear arms, salute the flag or participate in secular government.

They refuse blood transfusions as being against the Bible, citing the section of Leviticus that reads: “Whatsoever man...eats any manner of blood, I will cut him off from among his people.”

There are no formal titles, but there are three levels of ministry: publishers (baptized members who do evangelistic work), regular pioneers, who devote greater time to activities, and special pioneers (full-time workers).

Jell-O A trademark for a brand of gelatin dessert.

Jerusalem Stands alone in datelines.

Jesus The central figure of Christianity, he also may be called Jesus Christ or Christ.

Personal pronouns referring to him are lowercase.

jet, jetliner, jet plane See aircraft terms.

Jet Ski A registered trademark of Kawasaki for a type of personal watercraft.

Jew Use for men and women. Do not use Jewess.

Jewish congregations A Jewish congregation is autonomous. No synods, assemblies or hierarchies control the activities of an individual synagogue.

In the United States, there are three major expressions of Judaism:

1. Orthodox Judaism. Most of its congregations are represented nationally by the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America. Most of its rabbis are members of the Rabbinical Council of America.

2. Reform Judaism. Its national representatives are the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and the Central Conference of American Rabbis.

3. Conservative Judaism. Its national representatives are the United Synagogue of America and the Rabbinical Assembly.

These six groups make up the New York-based Synagogue Council of America. It is the vehicle for consultation among the three expressions and coordinates joint activities.

The council estimates that its members represent about 3 million synagogue-affiliated American Jews, divided about equally among the three major groups. The council also estimates that 1 million American Jews, most of them Orthodox, are members of congregations not represented by council members.

Jews generally believe that a divine kingdom will be established on earth, opening a messianic era that will be marked by peace and bliss. They also believe that they have a mandate from God to work toward this kingdom.

The only formal titles in use are rabbi, for the spiritual leader of a congregation, and cantor, for the individual who leads the congregation in song. Capitalize these titles before an individual’s full name on first reference. On second reference, use only the last name of a man; use Miss, Mrs., Ms., or no title before the last name of a woman depending on her preference.

See religious titles and Zionism.

Jewish holy days See separate listings for Hanukkah, Passover, Purim, Rosh Hashana, Shavuot, Sukkot and Yom Kippur.

The High Holy Days are Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur. All Jewish holy days and the Jewish sabbath start at sunset before the day marked on most calendars.

jibe See the gibe, jibe entry.

job descriptions Always lowercase. See titles.

John F. Kennedy Space Center Located in Cape Canaveral, Fla., it is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s principal launch site for manned spacecraft.

Kennedy Space Center is acceptable in all references.

For datelines on launch stories:


See Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

Johns Hopkins University No apostrophes.

Joint Chiefs of Staff Also: the Joint Chiefs. But lowercase the chiefs or the chiefs of staff.

Jr. See the junior, senior entry.

judge Capitalize before a name when it is the formal title for an individual who presides in a court of law. Do not continue to use the title in second reference.

Do not use court as part of the title unless confusion would result without it:

—No court in the title: U.S. District Judge John Sirica, District Judge John Sirica, federal Judge John Sirica, Judge John Sirica, U.S. Circuit Judge Homer Thornberry, appellate Judge John Blair.

Court needed in the title: Juvenile Court Judge John Jones, Criminal Court Judge John Jones, superior Court Judge Robert Harrison, state Supreme Court Judge William Cushing.

When the formal title chief judge is relevant, put the court name after the judge’s name: Chief Judge John Sirica of the U.S. District Court in Washington, D.C.; Chief Judge Clement F. Haynsworth Jr. of the 4th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals.

Do not pile up long court names before the name of a judge. Make it Judge John Smith of Allegheny County Common Pleas Court. Not: Allegheny County Common Pleas Court Judge John Smith.

Lowercase judge as an occupational designation in phrases such as beauty contest judge Bert Parks.

See administrative law judge; court names; judicial branch; and justice.

judge advocate The plural: judge advocates. Also: judge advocate general, judge advocates general.

Capitalize as a formal title before a name.

See titles.

judgment Not judgement.

judicial branch Always lowercase.

The federal court system that exists today as the outgrowth of Article 3 of the Constitution is composed of the Supreme Court of the United States, the U.S Court of Appeals, U.S. District Courts, and the U.S. Customs Court. There are also four district judges for U.S. territories.

The U.S. Tax Court and the U.S. Court of Military Appeals are not part of the judicial branch as such.

For more detail on all federal courts, see separate entries under the names listed here.

Judicial Conference of the United States This rule-making body for the courts of the judicial branch meets twice a year. Its 25 members are the chief justice, the chief judges of the 11 circuit courts, one district judge from each of the circuits, and the chief judges of the U.S. Court of Claims and the U.S. Court of Customs and Patent Appeals.

Day-to-day functions are handled by the Administrative Office of U.S. Courts.


July See months.

jumbo jet Any very large jet plane, including the Boeing 747, the DC-10, the L-1011 and the C-5A.

June See months.

junior, senior Abbreviate as Jr. and Sr. only with full names of persons or animals. Do not precede by a comma: Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.

The notation II or 2nd may be used if it is the individual’s preference. Note, however, that II and 2nd are not necessarily the equivalent of junior — they often are used by a grandson or nephew.

If necessary to distinguish between father and son in second reference, use the elder Smith or the younger Smith.

See names.

Junior Chamber of Commerce A volunteer organization of young men and women involved in civic service and leadership training.

Members are called Jaycees.

U.S. headquarters is in Tulsa, Okla.; international headquarters in Coral Gables, Fla.

See Jaycees.

junta See the government, junta, regime entry.

jury The word takes singular verbs and pronouns: The jury has been sequestered until it reaches a verdict.

Do not use awkward phrases such as seven-man, five-woman jury. Make it: a jury of seven men and five women.

Do not capitalize: a U.S. District Court jury, a federal jury, a Massachusetts Superior Court jury, a Los Angeles County grand jury.

See grand jury.

justice Capitalize before a name when it is the formal title. It is the formal title for members of the U.S. Supreme Court and for jurists on some state courts. In such cases, do not use judge in first or subsequent references.

See judge; Supreme Court of the United States; and titles.

justice of the peace Capitalize as a formal title before a name. Do not abbreviate.

See titles.

juvenile delinquent Juveniles may be declared delinquents in many states for anti-social behavior or for breaking the law. In some states, laws prohibit publishing or broadcasting the names of juvenile delinquents.

Follow the local practice unless there is a compelling reason to the contrary. Consult with the General Desk if you believe such an exception is warranted.