namesIn general, people are entitled to be known however they want to be known, as long as their identities are clear.
When an individual elects to change the name by which he has been known, such as Cassius Clay’s transition to Muhammad Ali, provide both names in stories until the new name is known by the public. After that, use only the new name unless there is a specific reason for including the earlier identification.
See thejunior, senior entry and the entries under middle initials; nicknames; and sex changes.
nano-A prefix denoting one-billionth of a unit. Move a decimal point nine places to the left in converting to the basic unit: 2,999,888,777.5 nanoseconds equals 2.9998887775 seconds.
naphthaSee the oil entry.
Nation of IslamThe nationalist religious movement traces its origins in 1930 to W.D. Fard, also known as Wali Fard, who called for racial separation. Elijah Muhammad took over the leadership in 1934, holding the post until his death in 1975. A son, Warith (Wallace) Dean Muhammad, succeeded to the leadership and pointed the movement toward integration and traditional Islam. Louis Farrakhan led a militant faction into a separatist movement in 1976.
The Nation of Islam does not release membership figures, but published estimates have ranged from 10,000 to more than 20,000.
Use the title minister on first reference to clergymen: Minister Louis Farrakhan.
nationalSee the citizen, resident, subject, national, native entry.
National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA is acceptable on first reference.
If NASA is used in first reference to avoid a cumbersome lead, mention the full name later.
national anthemLowercase. But: "The Star-Spangled Banner."
National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleNAACP is acceptable on first reference to avoid a cumbersome lead, but provide the full name in the body of the story.
Headquarters is in Baltimore.
National Association of Letter CarriersThe shortened form Letter Carriers union is acceptable in all references.
Headquarters is in Washington.
National Baptist Convention of AmericaSee Baptist churches.
National Baptist Convention U.S.A. Inc.See Baptist churches.
National Broadcasting Co.See NBC.
national chairmanCapitalize when used before the name of the individual who heads a political party: Democratic National Chairman Kenneth M. Curtis.
National Conference of Catholic BishopsSee Roman Catholic Church.
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A.This interdenominational, cooperative body includes most major Protestant and Eastern Orthodox denominations in the United States.
The shortened form National Council of Churches is acceptable in all references.
Headquarters is in New York.
SeeWorld Council of Churches.
National Education AssociationNEA is acceptable on second reference.
Headquarters is in Washington.
National FFA OrganizationFormerly the Future Farmers of America. FFA is acceptable on second reference.
Headquarters is in Alexandria, Va.
National Governors’ AssociationNote the apostrophe. Represents the governors of the 50 states and five territories.
Its office is in Washington.
national guardCapitalize when referring to U.S. or state-level forces: the National Guard, the Guard, the Iowa National Guard, Iowa’s National Guard, National Guard troops.
Use lowercase for the forces of other nations.
National GuardsmanNote spelling. Capitalize as a proper noun when referring to an individual in a federal or state National Guard unit: He is a National Guardsman.
Lowercase guardsman when it stands alone.
National Hurricane CenterSee weather terms.
National Institutes of HealthThis agency within the Department of Health and Human Services is the principal biomedical research arm of the federal government.
It consists of the National Library of Medicine, 12 separate institutes and various divisions that provide centralized support services for the individual institutes.
The 12 institutes are: National Cancer Institute; National Eye Institute; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; National Institute of Dental Research; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; National Institute of General Medical Sciences; National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Dis-orders and Stroke; National Institute on Aging.
nationalistLowercase when referring to a partisan of a country. Capitalize only when referring to alignment with a political party for which this is the proper name.
See thepolitical parties and philosophies entry.
Nationalist ChinaSee China.
nationalities and racesCapitalize the proper names of nationalities, peoples, races, tribes, etc.: Arab, Arabic, African, American, Caucasian, Chero-kee, Chinese (both singular and plural), Eskimo (plural Eskimos), French Canadian, Gypsy (Gypsies), Japanese (singular and plural), Jew, Jewish, Latin, Negro (Negroes), Nordic, Sioux, Swede, etc.
Lowercase black (noun or adjective), white, red, mulatto, etc. Seecolored.
Seerace for guidelines on when racial identification is pertinent in a story.
Lowercase derogatory terms such as honky and nigger. Use them only in direct quotes when essential to the story.
National Labor Relations BoardNLRB is acceptable on second reference.
National League of CitiesIts members are the governments of cities with 30,000 or more residents, and some state and municipal leagues.
It is separate from the U.S. Conference of Mayors, whose membership is limited to mayors of cities with 30,000 or more residents. The organizations often engage in joint projects, however.
The office is in Washington.
National Organization for WomenNot of. NOW is acceptable on second reference.
Headquarters is in Washington.
National Rifle AssociationNRA is acceptable on second reference.
Headquarters is in Washington.
National Weather ServiceNo longer the U.S. Weather Bureau. The weather service (lowercase) may be used in any reference.
nativeSee the citizen, resident, subject, national, native entry.
NATOAcceptable in all references for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, but use it sparingly. A phrase such as the alliance is less burdensome to the reader.
NaugahydeA trademark for a brand of simulated leather.
nautical mileIt equals 1 minute of arc of a great circle or 6,076.11549 feet, or 1,852 meters. To convert to approximate statute miles (5,280 feet), multiply the number of nautical miles by 1.15.
naval, navelNaval pertains to a navy.
A navel is a bellybutton.
A navel orange is a seedless orange, so named because it has a small depression, like a navel, at its apex.
naval stationCapitalize only as part of a proper name: Norfolk Naval Station.
navyCapitalize when referring to U.S. forces: the U.S. Navy, the Navy, Navy policy. Do not use the abbreviation USN.
Lowercase when referring to the naval forces of other nations: the British navy.
This approach has been adopted for consistency, because many foreign nations do not use navy as the proper name.
Seemilitary academies and military titles.
Nazi, NazismDerived from the German for the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, the fascist political party founded in 1919 and abolished in 1945. Under Adolf Hitler, it seized control of Germany in 1933.
See thepolitical parties and philosophies entry.
NBCAcceptable in all references to the National Broadcasting Co.
Divisions are NBC News, NBC Radio and NBC-TV.
NCR Corp.Formerly National Cash Register Co.
Headquarters is in Dayton, Ohio.
NC-17The movie rating that denotes individuals under 17 are not admitted. (Previously, an X rating.)
Near EastThere is no longer a substantial distinction between this term and Middle East.
See theMiddle East entry.
nearsightedWhen used in a medical sense, it means an individual can see well at close range but has difficulty seeing objects at a distance.
NebraskaAbbrev.: Neb. See state names.
neither...norSee the either...or, neither...nor entry.
NetherlandsIn datelines, give the name of the community followed by Netherlands:
AMSTERDAM, Netherlands (AP) —
In stories: the Netherlands or Netherlands as the construction of a sentence dictates.
Netherlands AntillesIn datelines, give the name of the community followed by Netherlands Antilles. Do not abbreviate.
Identify an individual island, if needed, in the text.
net income, net profitSee profit terminology in the Business Guidelines and Style section.
neutron weaponA small warhead designed to be mounted on a Lance missile or fired from an 8-inch gun. It produces twice the deadly radiation of older, tactical nuclear warheads but less than one-tenth as much explosive power, heat and fallout. This means the warhead can kill people while causing little damage to buildings and other structures.
It is not a bomb. It is a weapon or a warhead.
If neutron bomb is used in a direct quote, explain in a subsequent paragraph that the warhead would be fired on a missile or from artillery and not dropped, like a bomb, from a plane.
The weapon officially is known as an enhanced radiation weapon.
NevadaAbbrev.: Nev. See state names.
New BrunswickOne of the three Maritime Provinces of Canada. Do not abbreviate.
New EnglandConnecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont.
NewfoundlandThis Canadian province comprises the island of Newfoundland and the mainland section known as Labrador. Do not abbreviate.
In datelines, use Newfoundland after the names of all cities and towns. Specify in the text whether the community is on the island or in Labrador.
New HampshireAbbrev.: N.H. See state names.
New JerseyAbbrev.: N.J. See state names.
New MexicoAbbrev.: N.M. See state names.
New OrleansThe city in Louisiana stands alone in datelines.
New SouthThe era that began in the South in the 1960s with a thriving economy and the election of state officials who advocated the abolition of racial segregation.
Old South applies to the South before the Civil War.
Newspaper Association of AmericaFormerly the American Newspaper Publishers Association. NAA is acceptable in second reference. Also the newspaper association, the asso-ciation.
Headquarters is in Reston, Va.
Newspaper Guild, TheFormerly the American Newspaper Guild, it is a union for newspaper and news service employees, generally those in the news and business departments.
On second reference: the Guild.
Headquarters is in Washington.
newspaper namesCapitalize the in a newspaper’s name if that is the way the publication prefers to be known.
Lowercase the before newspaper names if a story mentions several papers, some of which use the as part of the name and some of which do not.
Where location is needed but is not part of the official name, use parentheses: The Huntsville (Ala.) Times.
Consult the International Year Book published by Editor & Publisher to determine whether a two-name combination is hyphenated.
New TestamentSee Bible.
New WorldThe Western Hemisphere.
New Year’s, New Year’s Day, New Year’s EveBut: What will the new year bring?
The federal legal holiday is observed on Friday if Jan. 1 falls on a Saturday, on Monday if it falls on a Sunday.
New YorkAbbrev.: N.Y. Use New York state when a distinction must be made between state and city. See state names.
New York CityUse NEW YORK in datelines, not the name of an individual community or borough such as Flushing or Queens.
Identify the borough in the body of the story if pertinent.
New York Stock ExchangeNYSE is acceptable on second reference as an adjective. Use the stock exchange or the exchange for other second references.
Capitalize the nickname Big Board when used.
nicknamesA nickname should be used in place of a person’s given name in news stories only when it is the way the individual prefers to be known: Jimmy Carter.
When a nickname is inserted into the identification of an individual, use quotation marks: Sen. Henry M. “Scoop” Jackson. Also: Jackson is known as “Scoop.”
In sports stories and sports columns, commonly used nicknames may be substituted for a first name without the use of quotation marks: Woody Hayes, Bear Bryant, Catfish Hunter, Bubba Smith, etc. But in sports stories where the given name is used, and in all news stories: Paul “Bear” Bryant.
Capitalize without quotation marks such terms as Sunshine State, the Old Dominion, Motown, the Magic City, Old Hickory, Old Glory, Galloping Ghost.
No. Use as the abbreviation for number in conjunction with a figure to indicate position or rank: No. 1 man, No. 3 choice.
Do not use in street addresses, with this exception: No. 10 Downing St., the residence of Britain’s prime minister.
Do not use in the names of schools: Public School 19.
Nobel Prize, Nobel PrizesThe five established under terms of the will of Alfred Nobel are: Nobel Peace Prize, Nobel Prize in chemistry, Nobel Prize in literature, Nobel Prize in physics, Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. (Note the capitalization styles.)
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences is not a Nobel Prize in the same sense. The Central Bank of Sweden established it in 1968 as a memorial to Alfred Nobel. References to this prize should include the word Memorial to help make this distinction. Explain the status of the prize in the story when appropriate.
Nobel Prize award ceremonies are held on Dec. 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death in 1896. The award ceremony for peace is in Oslo and the other ceremonies are in Stockholm.
Capitalize prize in references that do not mention the category: He is a Nobel Prize winner. She is a Nobel Prize-winning scientist.
Lowercase prize when not linked with the word Nobel: The peace prize was awarded Monday.
nobilityReferences to members of the nobility in nations that have a system of rank present special problems because nobles frequently are known by their titles rather than their given or family names. Their titles, in effect, become their names.
The guidelines here relate to Britain’s nobility. Adapt them as appropriate to members of nobility in other nations.
Orders of rank among British nobility begin with the royal family. The term royalty is reserved for the families of living and deceased sovereigns.
Next, in descending order, are dukes, marquesses (also called mar-quises), earls, viscounts and barons. Many hold inherited titles; others have been raised to the nobility by the sovereign for their lifetimes. Occasionally the sovereign raises an individual to the nobility and makes the title inheritable by the person’s heirs, but the practice is increasingly rare.
Sovereigns also confer honorary titles, which do not make an individual a member of the nobility. The principal designations, in descending order, are baronet and knight.
In general, the guidelines incourtesy titles and titles apply. However, honorary titles and titles of nobility are capitalized when they serve as an alternate name.
Some guidelines and examples:
ROYALTY: Capitalize king, queen, prince and princess when they are used directly before one or more names; lowercase when they stand alone:
Queen Elizabeth II, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the queen. Kings George and Edward. Queen Mother Elizabeth, the queen mother.
Also capitalize a longer form of the sovereign’s title when its use is appropriate in a story or it is being quoted: Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth.
Use Prince or Princess before the names of a sovereign’s children: Princess Anne, the princess.
The male heir to the throne normally is designated Prince of Wales, and the title becomes, in common usage, an alternate name. Capitalize when used: The queen invested her eldest son as Prince of Wales. Prince Charles is now the Prince of Wales. The prince is a bachelor. Charles, Prince of Wales, was married today. His wife is known as the Princess of Wales.
DUKE: The full title — Duke of Wellington, for example — is an alternate name, capitalized in all uses. Lowercase duke when it stands alone.
The designation Arthur, Duke of Wellington, is appropriate in some cases, but never Duke Arthur or Lord Arthur.
The wife of a duke is a duchess: the Duchess of Wellington, the duchess, but never Duchess Diana or Lady Diana.
A duke normally also has a lesser title. It is commonly used for his eldest son if he has one. Use the courtesy titles Lord or Lady before the first names of a duke’s children.
Lady Jane Wellesley, only daughter of the eighth Duke of Wellington, has been linked romantically with Prince Charles, heir to the British throne. The eldest of Lady Jane’s four brothers is Arthur Charles, the Marquess Douro. The Wellingtons, whose family name is Wellesley, are not of royal blood. However, they rank among the nation’s most famous aristocrats thanks to the first duke, the victor at Waterloo.
MARQUESS, MARQUIS, EARL, VISCOUNT, BARON: The full titles serve as alternate names and should be capitalized. Frequently, however, the holder of such a title is identified as a lord: The Marquess of Bath, for example, more commonly is known as Lord Bath.
Use Lady before the name of a woman married to a man who holds one of these titles. The wife of a marquess is a marchioness, the wife of a marquis is a marquise, the wife of an earl is a countess (earl is the British equivalent of count), the wife of a viscount is a viscountess, the wife of a baron is a baroness.
Use Lord or Lady before the first names of the children of a marquess.
Use Lady before the first name of an earl’s daughter.
The Honorable often appears before the names of sons of earls, viscounts and barons who do not have titles. Their names should stand alone in news stories, however.
The Honorable also appears frequently before the names of unmarried daughters of viscounts and barons. In news stories, however, use a full name on first reference, a last name preceded by Miss on second.
Queen Elizabeth gave her sister’s husband, Antony Armstrong-Jones, the title Earl of Snowdon. Their son, David, is the Viscount Linley. They also have a daughter, Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones. Lord Snowdon, a photographer, was known as Antony Armstrong-Jones before he received his title.
BARONET, KNIGHT: Use Sir before a name if appropriate in the context; otherwise follow routine practice for names: Sir Harold Wilson on first reference, Sir Harold (not Sir Wilson) on second. Or: Prime Minister Harold Wilson on first reference, Wilson on second.
Do not use both an honorary title and a title of authority such as prime minister before a name.
Use Lady before the name of the wife of a baronet or knight.
For a woman who has received an honor in her own right, use Dame before her name if it is the way she is known or it is appropriate in the context: Dame Margot Fonteyn on first reference, Dame Margot on second.
noisome, noisyNoisome means offensive, noxious.
Noisy means clamorous.
nolo contendereThe literal meaning is, "I do not wish to contend." Terms such as no contest or no-contest plea are acceptable in all references.
When a defendant in a criminal case enters this plea, it means that he is not admitting guilt but is stating that he will offer no defense. The person is then subject to being judged guilty and punished as if he had pleaded guilty or had been convicted. The principal difference is that the defendant retains the option of denying the same charge in another legal proceeding.
no man’s land
non-The rules of prefixes apply, but in general no hyphen when forming a compound that does not have special meaning and can be understood if not is used before the base word. Use a hyphen, however, before proper nouns or in awkward combinations, such as non-nuclear. Follow Webster’s New World Dictionary.
nonaligned nationsA political rather than economic or geographic term. Although nonaligned nations do not belong to Western or Eastern military alliances or blocs, they profess not to be neutral, like Switzerland, but activist alternatives.
Do not confuse nonaligned with Third World, although some Third World nations may belong to the nonaligned group.
See theThird World entry.
noncontroversialAll issues are controversial. A noncontroversial issue is impossible. A controversial issue is redundant.
noneIt usually means no single one. When used in this sense, it always takes singular verbs and pronouns: None of the seats was in its right place.
Use a plural verb only if the sense is no two or no amount: None of the consultants agree on the same approach. None of the taxes have been paid.
nonrestrictive clausesSee essential clauses, nonessential clauses.
noonDo not put a 12 in front of it.
Seemidnight and times.
normSee the average, mean, median, norm entry.
north, northern, northeast, northwestSee the directions and regions entry.
North AmericaSee Western Hemisphere.
North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNATO is acceptable in all references, but use it sparingly. A phrase such as the alliance is less burdensome to the reader.
North CarolinaAbbrev.: N.C. See state names.
North Central regionAs defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, the 12-state region is broken into eastern and western divisions.
The five East North Central states are Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin.
The seven West North Central states are Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota.
SeeNortheast region; South; and West for the bureau’s other regional breakdowns.
North DakotaAbbrev.: N.D. See state names.
Northeast regionAs defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, the nine-state region is broken into two divisions — the New England states and the Middle Atlantic states.
Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont are the New England states.
New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania are classified as the Middle Atlantic states.
SeeNorth Central region; South; and West for the bureau’s other regional breakdowns.
Northern IrelandUse Northern Ireland after the names of all communities in datelines.
Seedatelines and United Kingdom.
North SlopeThe portion of Alaska north of Brooks Range, a string of mountains extending across the northern part of the state.
Headquarters is in St. Paul, Minn.
Northwest TerritoriesA territorial section of Canada. Do not abbreviate. Use in datelines after the names of all cities and towns in the territory.
If necessary, specify in the text whether the community is in one of the three territorial subdivisions: Franklin, Keewatin and Mackenzie.
nounsThe abbreviation n. is used in this book to identify the spelling of the noun forms of words frequently misspelled.
Nova ScotiaOne of the three Maritime Provinces of Canada. Do not abbreviate.
NovocainA trademark for a drug used as a local anesthetic. It also may be called procaine.
Nuclear Regulatory CommissionThis commission has taken over the regulatory functions previously performed by the Atomic Energy Commission.
NRC is acceptable on second reference, but the agency or the commission is preferred.
nuclear terminologyIn reporting on nuclear energy, include the definitions of appropriate terms, especially those related to radiation.
coreThe part of a nuclear reactor that contains its fissionable fuel. In a reactor core, atoms of fuel, such as uranium, are split. This releases energy in the form of heat which, in turn, is used to boil water for steam. The steam powers a turbine, and the turbine drives a generator to produce electricity.
fissionThe splitting of the nucleus of an atom, releasing energy.
meltdownThe worst possible nuclear accident in which the reactor core overheats to such a degree that the fuel melts. If the fuel penetrates its protective housing, radioactive materials will be released into the environment.
radThe standard unit of measurement for absorbed radiation. A millirad is a thousandth of a rad. There is considerable debate among scientists whether there is any safe level of absorption.
radiationInvisible particles or waves given off by radioactive material, such as uranium. Radiation can damage or kill body cells, resulting in latent cancers, genetic damage or death.
remThe standard unit of measurement of absorbed radiation in living tissue, adjusted for different kinds of radiation so that 1 rem of any radiation will produce the same biological effect. A millirem is a thousandth of a rem.
A diagnostic chest X-ray involves between 20 millirems and 30 millirems of radiation. Each American, on average, receives 100 millirems to 200 millirems of radiation a year from natural “background” sources, such as cosmic rays, and man-made sources, such as diagnostic X-rays. There is considerable debate among scientists over the safety of repeated low doses of radiation.
roentgenThe standard measure of X-ray exposure.
uraniumA metallic, radioactive element used as fuel in nuclear reactors.
numeralsA numeral is a figure, letter, word or group of words expressing a number.
Roman numerals use the letters I, V, X, L, C, D and M. Use Roman numerals for wars and to show personal sequence for animals and people: World War II, Native Dancer II, King George VI, Pope John XXIII. SeeRoman numerals.
Arabic numerals use the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 0. Use Arabic forms unless Roman numerals are specifically required. SeeArabic numerals.
The figures 1, 2, 10, 101, etc. and the corresponding words — one, two, ten, one hundred one, etc. — are called cardinal numbers. The term ordinal number applies to 1st, 2nd, 10th, 101st, first, second, tenth, one hundred first, etc.
Follow these guidelines in using numerals:
LARGE NUMBERS: When large numbers must be spelled out, use a hyphen to connect a word ending in y to another word; do not use commas between other separate words that are part of one number: twenty; thirty; twenty-one; thirty-one; one hundred forty-three; one thousand one hundred fifty-five; one million two hundred seventy-six thousand five hundred eighty-seven.
SENTENCE START: Spell out a numeral at the beginning of a sentence. If necessary, recast the sentence. There is one exception — a numeral that identifies a calendar year.
Wrong: 993 freshmen entered the college last year.
Right: Last year 993 freshmen entered the college.
Right: 1976 was a very good year.
CASUAL USES: Spell out casual expressions:
A thousand times no! Thanks a million. He walked a quarter of a mile.
PROPER NAMES: Use words or numerals according to an organization’s practice: 3M, Twentieth Century Fund, Big Ten.
FRACTIONS: See thefractions entry.
DECIMALS: See thedecimal units entry.
FIGURES OR WORDS?
—Spell out first through ninth when they indicate sequence in time or location: first base, the First Amendment, he was first in line. Starting with 10th use figures.
—Use 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc. when the sequence has been assigned in forming names. The principal examples are geographic, military and political designations such as 1st Ward, 7th Fleet and 1st Sgt. See examples in the separate entries listed below.
For cardinal numbers, consult the following separate entries:
aircraft names longitude
the Constitution millions, billions
betting oddsmodel numbers
course numberspolitical divisions
decimal unitsroute numbers
SOME PUNCTUATION AND USAGE EXAMPLES:
—Act 1, Scene 2
—a 5-year-old girl
—DC-10 but 747B
—a 5-4 court decision
—2nd District Court
—the 1980s, the ’80s
—the House voted 230-205. (Fewer than 1,000 votes.)
—Jimmy Carter defeated Gerald Ford 40,827,292 to 39,146,157. (More than 1,000 votes.)
—Carter defeated Ford 10 votes to 2 votes in Little Junction. (To avoid confusion with ratio.)
—05 cents, $1.05, $650,000, $2.45 million
—No. 3 choice, but Public School 3
—0.6 percent, 1 percent, 6.5 percent
—a pay increase 12 percent to 15 percent. Or: a pay increase of between 12 percent and 15 percent
Also: from $12 million to $14 million
—a ratio of 2-to-1, a 2-1 ratio
—a 4-3 score
—minus 10, zero, 60 degrees
OTHER USES: For uses not covered by these listings: Spell out whole numbers below 10, use figures for 10 and above. Typical examples: They had three sons and two daughters. They had a fleet of 10 station wagons and two buses.
IN A SERIES: Apply the appropriate guidelines: They had 10 dogs, six cats and 97 hamsters. They had four four-room houses, 10 three-room houses and 12 10-room houses.
NurembergUse this spelling for the city in Germany, instead of Nuernberg, in keeping with widespread practice.
nylonNot a trademark.