Abbreviations Do not spell out the most common abbreviations: NFL, NBA, CART, USAC, AFC, NFC.

All-America, All-American The Associated Press recognizes only one All-America football and basketball team each year. In football, only Walter Camp’s selections through 1924, and the AP selections after that, are recognized. Do not call anyone an All-America selection unless he is listed on either the Camp or AP roster.

Similarly do not call anyone an All-America basketball player unless an AP selection. The first All-America basketball team was chosen in 1948.

Use All-American when referring specifically to an individual:

All-American Pat Ewing, or He is an All-American.

Use All-America when referring to the team:

All-America team, or All-America selection.

Americas Cup (golf) America’s Cup (yachting)

archery Scoring is usually in points. Use a basic summary. Example:

(After 3 of 4 Distances)

1. Darrell Pace, Cincinnati, 914 points.

2. Richard McKinney, Muncie, Ind. 880.

3. etc.

AstroTurf A trademark for a type of artificial grass.

athlete’s foot, athlete’s heart

athletic club Abbreviate as AC with the name of a club, but only in sports summaries: Illinois AC. See the volleyball entry for an example of such a summary.

athletic teams Capitalize teams, associations and recognized nicknames: Red Sox, the Big Ten, the A’s, the Colts.

athletics director Not athletic.

auto racing

Follow the forms below for all major auto races:



ANYTOWN, Fredonia (AP) — Qualifying results Friday for the Fredonia Grand Prix Formula One race on the 3.97-kilometer (2.48-mile) Major Fredonia circuit with driver, country, make of car and qualifying speed:

1. Ayrton Senna, Brazil, McLaren-Honda, 171.103 kph (108.265 mph).

2. Alain Prost, France, Ferrari, 170.297 kph (107.919 mph).

3. etc. for entire starting grid.


ANYTOWN, Fredonia (AP) — Results Sunday in the Fredonia Grand Prix over the 3.97-kilometer (2.48-mile) Major Fredonia circuit with driver, country (for U.S. drivers, add hometown), make of car, laps completed, reason out (if any) and winner’s average speed:

1. Ayrton Senna, Brazil, McLaren-Honda, 44 laps, 164.297 kph (101.823 mph).

2. Alain Prost, France, Ferrari, 44.

3. Nigel Mansell, Britain, Ferrari, 43.

4. etc. for entire starting grid, adding all non-finishers as follows:

23. Bernhard Bergen, Austria, McLaren-Honda, 12, broken axle.

After the final driver, add:

Time of race: 1:52:53.

Margin of victory: 1.7 seconds.

Caution flags: No full-course yellows.

Lead changes: 2 between 2 drivers.

Lap leaders: Senna, 1-34, Boutsen 35-36, Senna 37-44.

For point leaders:

World Driver Leaders

(Points on 9-6-4-3-2-1 basis)

1. Nicki Lauda, Austria, 47 points. 2. Emerson Fitipaldi, Brazil, 53.3. etc.


backboard, backcourt, backfield, backhand, backspin, backstop, backstretch, backstroke Some are exceptions to Webster’s New World, made for consistency in handling sports stories.

badminton Games are won by the first player to score 21 points, unless it is necessary to continue until one player has a two-point spread. Most matches go to the first winner of two games.

Use a match summary. See racquetball for an example.

ball carrier

ballclub, ballpark, ballplayer


The spellings for some frequently used words and phrases, some of which are exceptions to Webster’s New World:

backstop outfielder

ballclub passed ball

ballpark pinch hit (v.)

ballplayer pinch-hit (n., adj.)

baseline pinch hitter (n.)

bullpen pitchout

center field play off (v.)

center fielder playoff (n., adj.)

designated hitter put out (v.) putout (n.)

doubleheader RBI (s.), RBIs (pl.)

double play rundown (n.)

fair ball sacrifice

fastball sacrifice fly

first baseman sacrifice hit

foul ball line shoestring catch

foul tip shortstop

ground-rule double shut out (v.)

home plate shutout (n., adj.)

home run slugger

left-hander squeeze play

line drive strike

line up (v.) strike zone

lineup (n.) Texas leaguer

major league(s) (n.) triple play

major-league (adj.) twi-night double-header

major-leaguer (n.) wild pitch

NUMBERS: Some sample uses of numbers: first inning, seventh-inning stretch, 10th inning; first base, second base, third base; first home run, 10th home run; first place, last place; one RBI, 10 RBIs. The pitcher’s record is now 6-5. The final score was 1-0.

LEAGUES: Use American League, National League, American League West, National League East, or AL West and AL East, etc. On second reference: the league, the pennant in the West, the league’s West Division, etc.

BOX SCORES: A sample follows.

The visiting team always is listed on the left, the home team on the right.

Only one position, the first he played in the game, is listed for any player.

Figures in parentheses are the player’s total in that category for the season.

Use the First Game line shown here only if the game was the first in a double-header.

One line in this example — None out when winning run scored — could not have occurred in this game as played. It is included to show its placement when needed.

First Game


ab r h bi ab r h bi

Stone lf 4 0 0 0 Flannry 2 3 0 1 0

GGross lf 0 0 0 0 Gwynn rf 4 0 2 0

Schu 3 4 1 0 0 Garvey 1 4 0 0 0

Samuel 2b 4 0 1 2 Nettles 3b 3 1 1 0

Schmdt 1 4 0 0 0 Royster 3 0 0 0 0

Virgil c 4 2 2 3 McRynl cf 4 0 1 1

GWilson rf 4 0 0 0 Kennedy c 4 0 1 0

Maddoxc 3 0 0 0 Martinez lf 4 1 1 0

Jeltz ss 2 0 0 0 Templtn ss 4 0 2 1

KGross p 3 0 1 0 Dravcky p 2 0 0 0

Tekulve p 0 0 0 0 Bmbry ph 1 0 0 0

Lefferts p 0 0 0 0

Totals 32 3 4 3 33 2 9 2

Philadelphia 010 200 000 - 3

San Diego 000 200 000 - 2

None out when winning run scored.

E. Templeton, GWilson. DP — Philadelpia 2. LOB — Philadelphia 3, San Diego 6. 2B — Templeton, Gwynn. HR — Virgil (8).



KGross W, 4-6 7 1-3 9 2 2 0 3

Tekulve S, 3 1 2-3 0 0 0 1 0

San Diego

Dravecky L, 4-3 7 4 3 1 1 2

Lefferts 2 0 0 0 0 1

HBP — Flannery by KGross. T — 2:13. A-17,740.

LINESCORE: When a bare linescore summary is required, use this form:

Philadelphia 010 200 000 — 3 4 1

San Diego 000 200 000 — 2 9 1

K. Gross, Tekulve (8) and Virgil; Dravecky, Lefferts (3) and Kennedy. W - KGross, 4-6. LDravecky, 4-3. Sv - Tekulve (3). HRs - Philadelphia, Virgil 2 (8).


The form:

All Times EDT



W L Pct. GB

Pittsburgh 92 69 .571 —

Philadelphia 85 75 .531 61/2



W L Pct. GB

Cincinnati 108 54 .667 —

Los Angeles 88 74 .543 20


(Night games not included)

Monday’s Results

Chicago 7, St. Louis 5

Atlanta at New York, rain.

Tuesday’s Games

Cincinnati (Gullett 14-2 and Nolan 4-4) at New York (Seaver 12-3 and Matlack 6-1) 2, 6 p.m.

Wednesday’s Games

Cincinnati at New York

Chicago at St.Louis, night

Only games scheduled.

In subheads for results and future games, spell out day of the week as: Tuesday’s Games, instead of Today’s Games.

basic summary This format for summarizing sports events lists winners in the order of their finish. The figure showing the place finish is followed by an athlete’s full name, his affiliation or hometown, and his time, distance, points, or whatever performance factor is applicable to the sport.

If a contest involves several types of events, the paragraph begins with the name of the event.

A typical example:

60-yard dash — 1, Steve Williams, Florida TC, 6.0. 2, Hasley Crawford, Philadelphia Pioneer, 6.1. 3, Mike McFarland, Chicago TC, 6.2. 4, etc.

100 — 1, Steve Williams, Florida TC, 10.1. 2, etc.

Additional examples are provided in the entries for many of the sports that are reported in this format.

Most basic summaries are a single paragraph per event, as shown. In some competitions with large fields, however, the basic summary is supplied under a dateline with each winner listed in a single paragraph. See the auto racing and bowling entries for examples.

For international events in which U.S. or Canadian competitors are not among the leaders, add them in a separate paragraph as follows:

Also: 14, Dick Green, New York, 6.8. 17, George Bensen, Canada, 6.9. 19, etc.

In events where points, rather than time or distance, are recorded as performances, mention the word points on the first usage only:

1. Jim Benson, Springfield, N.J., 150 points. 2. Jerry Green, Canada, 149. 3. etc.

basketball The spellings of some frequently used words and phrases:

backboard half-court pass

backcourt halftime

backcourtman hook shot

baseline jump ball

field goal jump shot

foul line layup

foul shot man-to-man

free throw midcourt

free-throw line pivotman

frontcourt play off (v.)

full-court press playoff (n., adj.)

goaltending zone

NUMBERS: Some sample uses of numbers: in the first quarter, a second-quarter lead, nine field goals, 10 field goals, the 6-foot-5 forward, the 6-10 center. He is 6 feet 10 inches tall.

LEAGUE: National Basketball Association or NBA.

For subdivisions: the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference, the Pacific Division of the Western Conference, etc. On second reference: the NBA East, the division, the conference, etc.

BOX SCORE: A sample follows. The visiting team always is listed first.

In listing the players, begin with the five starters — two forwards, center, two guards — and follow with all substitutes who played.

Figures after each player’s last name denote field goals, free throws, free throws attempted and total points.



Worthy 8-19 4-6 20, Rambis 4-6 0-0 8, Abdul-Jabbar 6-11 0-0 12, E. Johnson 8-14 3-4 19, Scott 5-14 0-0 10, Cooper 1-5 2-2 4, McAdoo 6-13 0-0 12, McGee 4-7 4-5 14, Spriggs 4-7 0-2 8, Kupchak 3-3 1-2 7. Totals 49-100 14-21 114.

BOSTON (148)

McHale 10-16 6-9 26, Bird 8-14 2-2 19, Parish 6-11 6-7 18, D. Johnson 6-14 1-1 13, Ainge 9-15 0-0 19, Buckner 3-5, 0-0 6, Williams 3-5 0-0 6, Wedman 11-11 0-2 26, Maxwell 1-1 1-2 3, Kite 3-5 1-2 7, Carr 1-3 0-0 3, Clark 1-2 0-0 2. Totals 62-102 17-25 148.

Three-point goals — Wedman 4, McGee 2, Bird, Ainge, Carr. Fouled out — None. Rebounds — Los Angeles 43 (Rambis 9), Boston 63 (McHale 9).

Assists — Los Angeles 28 (E. Johnson 12), Boston 43 (D. Johnson 10).

Total fouls — Los Angeles 23, Boston 17. Technicals — Ainge. A — 14,890.

STANDINGS: The format for professional standings:

Eastern Conference

Atlantic Division

W L Pct. GB

Boston 43 22 .662 —

Philadelphia 40 30 .571 5 1/2


In college boxes, the score by periods is omitted because the games are divided only into halves.

UCLA (69)

Jackson 1-6 2-2 4, Maloncon 4-7 2-2 10, Wright 4-7 1-5 9, Gaines 4-6 1-2 9, MIguel 5-10 0-0 10, Butler 2-3 6-8 10, Hatcher 3-8 0-0 6, Immel 2-2 1-1 5, Haley 1-1 4-4 6, Miller 0-2 0-0 0, J. Jones 0-3 0-0 0, Dunlap 0-0 0-0 0. Totals 26-55 17-24 69.

ST. JOHN’S (88)

Berry 10-14 3-5 23, Glass 4-5 3-6 11, Wennington 5-9 4-4 14, Moses 5-6 0-0 10, Mullin 6-11 4-6 16, Jackson 1-3 5-5 7, Stewart 0-3 2-2 2, S. Jones 1-2 2-2 4, Bross 0-1 0-0 0, Rowan 0-2 0-0 0, Shurina 0-0 1-2 1, Coregy 0-0 0-0 0. Totals 32-56 24-32 88.

Halftime — St. John’s 48, UCLA 35. Fouled out — None. Rebounds — UCLA 25 (Wright 9), St. John’s 39 (Mullin 9). Assists —UCLA 18 (Gaines 5), St. John’s 21 (Moses 8). Total fouls — UCLA 22, St. John’s 20.


The format for college conference standings:

Conference All Games

W L Pct. W L Pct.

Missouri 12 2 .857 24 4 .857

betting odds Use figures and a hyphen: The odds were 5-4, he won despite 3-2 odds against him.

The word to seldom is necessary, but when it appears it should be hyphenated in all constructions: 3-to-2 odds, odds of 3-to-2, the odds were 3-to-2.

bettor A person who bets.


billiards Scoring is in points. Use a match summary. Example:

Minnesota Fats, St. Paul, Minn., def. Pool Hall Duke, 150-141.

bobsledding, luge Scoring is in minutes, seconds and tenths of a second. Extend to hundredths if available.

Identify events as two-man, four-man, men’s luge, women’s luge.

Use a basic summary. Example:

Two-man — 1, Jim Smith and Dick Jones, Alaska Sledders, 4:20.77.2, Tom Winner and Joe Finisher, Mountaineers, 4:31.14.3, etc.

bowl games Capitalize them: Cotton Bowl, Orange Bowl, Rose Bowl, etc.

bowling Scoring systems use both total points and won-lost records.

Use the basic summary format in paragraph form. Note that a comma is used in giving pinfalls of more than 999.


ST. LOUIS (AP) — Second-round leaders and their total pinfalls in the $100,000 Professional Bowlers Association tournament:

1. Bill Spigner, Hamden, Conn., 2,820.

2. Gary Dickinson, Fort Worth, Texas, 2,759.

3. etc.

ALAMEDA, Calif. (AP) — The 24 match play finalists with their won-lost records and total pinfall Thursday night after tour rounds — 26 games — of the $65,000 Alameda Open bowling tournament:

1. Jay Robinson, Los Angeles, 5-3, 5,937.

2. Butch Soper, Huntington Beach, Calif., 3-5, 5,932.

3. etc.

boxing The three major sanctioning bodies for professional boxing are the World Boxing Association, the World Boxing Council and the International Boxing Federation.

Weight classes and titles by organization:

108-111 pounds — Junior Flyweight, WBA, IBF; light flyweight, WBC.

112-117 pounds — Flyweight, WBA, WBC, IBF.

118-121 pounds — Bantamweight, WBA, WBC, IBF.

122-125 pounds — Junior featherweight, WBA, IBF, super bantamweight, WBC.

126-129 pounds — Featherweight, WBA, WBC, IBF.

130-134 pounds — Junior lightweight, WBA, IBF; super featherweight, WBC.

135-139 pounds — Lightweight, WBA, WBC, IBF.

140-146 pounds — Junior welterweight, WBA, IBF; super lightweight, WBC.

147-153 pounds — Welterweight, WBA, WBC, IBF.

154-159 pounds — Junior middleweight, WBA, IBF; super welterweight, WBC.

160-174 pounds — Middleweight, WBA, WBC.

160-164 pounds — Middleweight, IBF.

165-174 pounds — Super middleweight, IBF.

175-194 pounds — Light heavyweight, WBA, WBC, IBF.

195 pounds — Junior heavyweight, WBA; cruiserweight, WBC, IBF.

Over 195 pounds — Heavyweight, WBA, WBC, IBF.

Some other terms:

kidney punch A punch to an opponent’s kidney when the puncher has only one hand free. An illegal punch. If the puncher has both hands free, a punch to the opponent’s kidney is legal.

knock out (v.) knockout (n. and adj.) A fighter is knocked out if he takes a 10-count.

If a match ends early because one fighter is unable to continue, say that the winner stopped the loser. In most boxing jurisdictions there is no such thing as a technical knockout.

outpointed Not outdecisioned.

rabbit punch A punch behind an opponent’s neck. It is illegal.

SUMMARIES: Use a match summary.

Some examples, with the fighters’ weights after their names and the number of rounds at the end.

Randy Jackson, 152, New York, outpointed Chuck James, 154, Philadelphia, 10.

Muhammad Ali, 220, Chicago, knocked out Pierre Coopman, 202, Belgium, 5.

George Foreman, 217, Hayward, Calif., stopped Joe Frazier, 214, Philadelphia, 2.


An example:

SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico (AP) — The tale of the tape for the Jean Pierre Coopman-Muhammad Ali world heavyweight championship fight Friday night:

Coopman Ali

Age 29 34

Weight 202 220

Height 6-0 6-3

Reach 75 80

Chest Normal 43 44

Chest Expanded 45 1/2 46

Biceps 15 15

Forearm 13 13 1/2

Waist 34 1/2 34

Thigh 25 1/2 26

Calf 15 17

Neck 17 17 1/2

Wrist 7 1/2 8

Fist 12 1/2 13

Ankle 9 9 1/2


An example:

NEW YORK (AP) — Scorecards for the Muhammad Ali-Joe Frazier heavyweight title fight Friday night:

Scoring by rounds:

Referee Tom Smith


Judge Bill Swift


Judge Ralph Cohen


Scoring by points system:

Referee Tom Smith

A 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 10

F 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 9 10 10 10 10 10

Total — Ali 146, Frazier 143.

Judge Ralph Cohen

A 10 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9

F 9 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 9 10 10 10 10

Total — Ali 145, Frazier 143.

box office (n.) box-office (adj.)

bullfight, bullfighter, bullfighting

bullpen One word, for the place where baseball pitchers warm up, and for a pen that holds cattle.


Canada Goose Not Canadian goose.

canoeing Scoring is in minutes, seconds and tenths of a second. Extend to hundredths if available.

Use a basic summary. Example:

Canoeing, Men

Kayak Singles, 500 meters

Heat 1 — Rudiger Helm, Germany, 1:56.06. 2. Zoltan Sztanity, Hungary, 1:57.12. 3. etc.

Also: 6. Henry Krawczyk, New York, 2 04.64.

First Repechage — 1, Ladislay Soucek, Czech Republic, 1:53.20. 2. Hans Eich, Germany, 1:54.23. 3. etc.

coach Lowercase in all uses, as a job description, not a formal title. See titles in main section.

collective nouns Nouns that denote a unit take singular verbs and pronouns: class, committee, crowd, family, group, herd, jury, orchestra, team.

However, team names such as the Jazz, the Magic, the Avalanche, take plural verbs.

colt A male horse 4 years and under.

conferences Here is a listing of major college basketball conferences. (Football affiliations, where different, are in parentheses.)

America East — Boston University; Delaware; Drexel; Hartford; Hofstra; Maine; New Hampshire; Northeastern; Towson State; Vermont. (Boston U., Delaware, Maine, New Hampshire and Northeastern — Yankee; Hofstra and Towson St. — I-AA; Drexel, Hartford and Vermont do not have football programs.)

Atlantic Coast Conference — Clemson; Duke; Florida State; Georgia Tech; Maryland; North Carolina; North Carolina State; Virginia; Wake Forest.

Atlantic 10 Conference — Dayton; Duquesne; Fordham; George Washington; La Salle; Massachusetts; Rhode Island; St. Bonaventure; St. Joseph’s; Temple; Virginia Tech; Xavier, Ohio. (Dayton — Pioneer; Duquesne — Metro Atlantic; Fordham — Patriot; Massachusetts and Rhode Island — Yankee; Temple and Virginia Tech — Big East; George Washington, La Salle, St. Bonaventure, St. Joseph’s and Xavier do not have football programs.)

Big East Conference — Boston College; Connecticut; Georgetown; Miami; Notre Dame; Pittsburgh; Providence; Rutgers; St. John’s; Seton Hall; Syracuse; Villanova; West Virginia. (Connecticut and Villanova — Yankee; Georgetown and St. John’s — Metro Atlantic; Notre Dame — Division I-A independent; Providence and Seton Hall do not have football programs.)

Big Sky Conference — Eastern Washington; Idaho; Idaho State; Montana; Montana State; North Arizona; Portland State; Weber State.

Big South Conference — Charleston Southern; Coastal Carolina; Liberty; Maryland-Baltimore County; North Carolina-Asheville; North Carolina-Greensboro; Radford; Winthrop. (Charleston Southern and Liberty — Division I-AA independent; Coastal Carolina, Md.-Baltimore County, N.C.-Asheville, N.C.-Greensboro, Radford and Winthrop do not have football programs.)

Big Ten Conference — Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Michigan; Michigan State; Minnesota; Northwestern; Ohio State; Penn State; Purdue; Wisconsin.

Big 12 Conference — Baylor; Colorado; Iowa State; Kansas; Kansas State; Missouri; Nebraska; Oklahoma; Oklahoma State; Texas; Texas A&M; Texas Tech.

Big West Conference — Boise State; California-Irvine; California-Santa Barbara; Cal Poly-San Luis Obispo; Cal State-Fullerton; Idaho; Long Beach State; Nevada; New Mexico State; Utah State. (Cal Poly-SLO — American West; UC Irvine, UC Santa Barbara, Cal St.-Fullerton, Long Beach St. and Pacific do not have football programs.)

Colonial Athletic Association — American; East Carolina; George Mason; James Madison; North Carolina-Wilmington; Old Dominion; Richmond; Virginia Commonwealth; William & Mary. (East Carolina — Conference USA; James Madison, Richmond and William & Mary — Yankee; American, George Mason, N.C.-Wilmington, Old Dominion and VCU do not have football programs.)

Conference USA — Alabama-Birmingham; Cincinnati; DePaul; Houston; Louisville; Marquette; Memphis; North Carolina Charlotte; Saint Louis; South Florida; Southern Mississippi; Tulane. (DePaul, Marquette, N.C. Charlotte, Saint Louis and South Florida do not have football programs.)

Ivy League — Brown; Columbia; Cornell; Dartmouth; Harvard; Pennsylvania; Princeton; Yale.

Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference — Canisius; Fairfield; Iona; Loyola, Md.; Manhattan; Niagara; St. Peter’s; Siena. (Fairfield, Loyola, Md., Manhattan, Niagara and Siena do not have football programs.)

Mid-American Conference — Akron; Ball State; Bowling Green; Central Michigan; Eastern Michigan; Kent; Miami, Ohio; Ohio University; Toledo; Western Michigan.

Mid-Continent Conference — Buffalo; Central Connecticut State; Chicago State; Eastern Illinois; Missouri-Kansas City; Northeastern Illinois; Troy State; Valparaiso; Western Illinois; Youngstown State. (Buffalo and Youngstown St. — I-AA independent; Cent. Connecticut St. — Northeast; E. Illinois and W. Illinois — Gateway; Troy St. — Southland; Valparaiso — Pioneer; Chicago St., Mo.-Kansas City and NE Illinois do not have football programs.)

Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference — Bethune-Cookman; Coppin State; Delaware State; Florida A&M; Hampton; Howard; Maryland-Eastern Shore; Morgan State; North Carolina A&T; South Carolina State. (Coppin St. and Md.-Eastern Shore do not have football programs.)

Midwestern Collegiate Conference — Butler; Cleveland State; Detroit Mercy; Illinois-Chicago; Loyola, Ill.; Northern Illinois; Wisconsin-Green Bay; Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Wright State. (Butler — Pioneer; N. Illinois — I-A independent; Cleveland St., Detroit Mercy, Ill.-Chicago, Loyola, Wis.-Green Bay, Wis.-Milwaukee and Wright St. do not have football programs.)

Missouri Valley Conference — Bradley; Creighton; Drake; Evansville; Illinois State; Indiana State; Northern Iowa; Southern Illinois; Southwest Missouri State; Wichita State. (Drake and Evansville — Pioneer; Illinois St., Indiana St., N. Iowa, S. Illinois and SW Missouri St. — Gateway; Bradley, Creighton and Wichita St. do not have football programs.)

Northeast Conference — Fairleigh Dickinson; Long Island University; Marist; Monmouth, N.J.; Mount St. Mary’s, Md.; Rider; Robert Morris; St. Francis, N.Y.; St. Francis, Pa.; Wagner. (Marist — Metro Atlantic; FDU, LIU, Mount St. Mary’s, Rider and St. Francis, N.Y. do not have football programs.)

Ohio Valley Conference — Austin Peay; Eastern Kentucky; Middle Tennessee State; Morehead State; Murray State; Southeast Missouri State; Tennessee-Martin; Tennessee State; Tennessee Tech.

Pacific-10 Conference — Arizona; Arizona State; California; Oregon; Oregon State; Southern California; Stanford; UCLA; Washington; Washington State.

Patriot League — Army; Bucknell; Colgate; Holy Cross; Lafayette; Lehigh; Navy. (Army and Navy — I-A independents.)

Southeastern Conference — Alabama; Arkansas; Auburn; Florida; Georgia; Kentucky; LSU; Mississippi; Mississippi State; South Carolina; Tennessee; Vanderbilt.

Southern Conference — Appalachian State; Citadel; Davidson; East Tennessee State; Furman; Georgia Southern; Marshall; Tennessee-Chattanooga; Virginia Military Institute; Western Carolina. (Davidson — I-AA independent.)

Southland Conference — McNeese State; Nicholls State; North Texas; Northeast Louisiana; Northwestern State, La.; Sam Houston State; Southwest Texas State; Stephen F. Austin; Texas-Arlington; Texas-San Antonio. (North Texas — Big West; NE Louisiana — I-A independent; Texas-Arlington and Texas-San Antonio do not have football programs.)

Southwestern Athletic Conference — Alabama State; Alcorn State; Grambling State; Jackson State; Mississippi Valley State; Prairie View A&M; Southern University; Texas Southern.

Sun Belt Conference — Arkansas-Little Rock; Arkansas State; Jacksonville; Lamar; Louisiana Tech; New Orleans; South Alabama; Southwestern Louisiana; Texas-Pan American; Western Kentucky. (Arkansas St., Louisiana Tech and SW Louisiana — I-A independents; W. Kentucky — I-AA independent; UALR, Jacksonville, Lamar, New Orleans, South Alabama and Texas-Pan American do not have football programs.)

Trans America Athletic Conference — Campbell; Centenary; Central Florida; College of Charleston; Florida Atlantic; Florida International; Georgia State; Jacksonville State; Mercer; Samford; Southeastern Louisiana; Stetson. (Central Florida — I-AA independent; Campbell, Centenary, Charleston, Florida Atlantic, Florida International, Georgia St., Mercer, SE Louisiana and Stetson do not have football programs.)

West Coast Conference — Gonzaga; Loyola Marymount; Pepperdine; Portland; St. Mary’s, Calif.; San Diego; San Francisco; Santa Clara. (St. Mary’s, Calif. — I-AA independent; San Diego — Pioneer; Gonzaga, Loyola Marymount, Pepperdine, Portland, San Francisco and Santa Clara do not have football programs.)

Western Athletic Conference — Air Force; Brigham Young; Colorado State; Fresno State; Hawaii; Nevada-Las Vegas; New Mexico; Rice; San Diego State; San Jose State; Southern Methodist; Texas-El Paso; Texas Christian; Tulsa; Utah; Wyoming.

courtesy titles On sports wires, do not use courtesy titles in any reference unless needed to distinguish among those of the same last name. See courtesy titles in main section.

cross country No hyphen, an exception to Webster’s New World based on the practices of U.S. and international governing bodies for the sport.

Scoring for this track event is in minutes, seconds and tenths of a second. Extended to hundredths if available.

National AAU Championship

Cross Country

Frank Shorter, Miami, 5:25.67; 2. Tom Coster, Los Angeles, 5:30.72; 3. etc.

Adapt the basic summary to paragraph form under a dateline for a field of more than 10 competitors. See the auto racing and bowling entries for examples.

cycling Use the basic summary format.


decathlon Summaries include time or distance performance, points earned in that event and the cumulative total of points earned in previous events.

Contestants are listed in the order of their overall point totals. First name and hometown (or nation) are included only on the first and last events on the first day of competition; on the last day, first names are included only in the first event and in the summary denoting final placings.

Use the basic summary format. Include all entrants in summaries of each of the 10 events.

An example for individual events:


(Group A)

100-meter dash — 1. Fred Dixon, Los Angeles, 10.8 seconds, 854 points. 2. Bruce Jenner, San Jose State, 11:09, 783. 3. etc.

Long jump — 1. Dixon, 24-7 (7.34m), 889, 1,743. 2. Jenner, 23-6 (7.17m), 855, 1,638. 3. etc.

Decathlon final — 1. Bruce Jenner, San Jose State, 8,524 points. 2. Fred Dixon, Los Angeles, 8,277. 3. etc.

discus The disc thrown in track and field events.

diving Use a basic summary.

See skating, figure for the style on compulsory dives.


ERA Acceptable in all references to baseball’s earned run average.


fencing Identify epee, foil and saber classes as: men’s individual foil, women’s team foil, etc.

Use match summary for early rounds of major events, for lesser dual meets and for tournaments.

Use basic summary for final results of major championships.

For major events, where competitors meet in a round-robin and are divided into pools, use this form:

Epee, first round (four qualify for semi-finals) Pool 1 — Joe Smith, Springfield, Mass., 4-1. Enrique Lopez, Chile, 3-2. etc.

figure skating See skating, figure for guidelines on the summary form.

filly A female horse under the age of 5.

football The spellings of some frequently used words and phrases:

ball carrier lineman

ballclub line of scrimmage

blitz (n., v.) out of bounds (adv.)

end line out-of-bounds (adj.)

end zone pitchout (n.)

fair catch place kick

field goal place-kicker

fourth-and-one (adj.) play off (v.)

fullback playoff (n., adj.)

goal line quarterback

goal-line stand runback (n.)

halfback running back

halftime split end

handoff tailback

kick off (v.) tight end

kickoff (adj.) touchback

left guard touchdown

linebacker wide receiver

NUMBERS: Use figures for yardage: The 5-yard line, the 10-yard line, a 5-yard pass play, he plunged in from the 2, he ran 6 yards, a 7-yard gain. But: a fourth-and-two play.

Some other uses of numbers: The final score was 21-14. The team won its fourth game in 10 starts. The team record is 4-5-1.

LEAGUE: National Football League, or NFL.

STATISTICS: All football games, whether using the one- or two-point conversion, use the same summary style.

The visiting team always is listed first.

Field goals are measured from the point where the ball was kicked — not the line of scrimmage. The goal posts are 10 yards behind the goal lines. Include that distance.

Abbreviate team names to four letters or fewer on the scoring and statistical lines as illustrated.

The passing line shows, in order: completions-attempts-had intercepted.

A sample agate package:

Birmingham-Houston, Stats

Birmingham 7 16 0 7—30

Houston 14 7 0 6—27

First Quarter

Hou — Harrell 23 pass from Dillon (Fritsch kick), 1:00

Bir — Jones 11 run with lateral after Mason 12 pass from Stoudt (Miller kick), 5:57

Hou — Harrell 6 run (Fritsch kick), 8:07

Second Quarter

Bir — FG Miller 47, 1:13

Bir — Caruth 6 run (Miller kick), 5:49

Hou — Johnson 36 pass from Dillon (Fritsch kick), 12:12

Bir — FG Miller 43, 14:33

Fourth Quarter

Bir — FG Miller 20, 3:42

Bir — Stoudt 1 run (kick failed), 9:09

Hou — Dillon 8 run (pass failed), 13:58

A — 13,202


Bir Hou

First downs 21 15

Rushes-yards 46-209 12-70

Passing yards 109 260

Return yards 75 112

Comp-Att 13-24-0 17-33-2

Sacked-Yards Lost 4-23 2-24

Punts 3-38 3-41

Fumbles-lost 1-1 2-0

Penalties-yards 3-25 12-69

Time of Possession 35:57 24:03



RUSHING—Birmingham, Caruth 23-84, Coles 14-59, Stoudt 8-50, Gant 1-5. Houston, Harrell, 4-34, Fowler 5-26, Dillon 3-10.

PASSING—Birmingham, Stoudt 13-24-0 133. Houston, Dillon 17- 33-2 283.

RECEIVING—Birmingham, Toler 4-53, Jones 3-15, McFaddon 2-38, Coles 2-12, Mason, 1-12, Caruth 1-4. Houston, Johnson 5-108, McGee 3-59, McNeil 3-36, 2-27, Sanders 3-29. Verdin 1-24.

MISSED FIELD GOALS—Houston, Fritsch 32.

The rushing and receiving paragraph for individual leaders shows attempts and yardage gained. The passing paragraph shows completions, attempts, number of attempts intercepted, and total yards gained.

STANDINGS: The form for professional standings:

American Conference


W L T Pct. PF PA

Baltimore 10 4 0 .714 395 269

New England 9 5 0 .643 387 275


The form for college conference standings:

Conference All games

W L T Pts. OP W L T Pts. OP

UCLA 6 1 0 215 123 8 2 1 326 233


In college conference standings, limit team names to nine letters or fewer. Abbreviate as necessary.

fractions Put a full space between the whole number and the fraction. Do not separate with a thin symbol.


game plan

gelding A castrated male horse.

golf Some frequently used terms and some definitions:

Americas Cup No possessive.

birdie, birdies One stroke under par.

bogey, bogeys One stroke over par. The past tense is bogeyed.


eagle Two strokes under par.


Masters Tournament No possessive. Use the Masters on second reference.

tee, tee off

U.S. Open Championship Use the U.S. Open or the Open on second reference.

NUMBERS: Some sample uses of numbers:

Use figures for handicaps: He has a 3 handicap; a 3-handicap golfer, a handicap of 3 strokes; a 3-stroke handicap.

Use figures for par listings: He had a par 5 to finish 2-up for the round, a par-4 hole; a 7-under-par 64, the par-3 seventh hole.

Use figures for club ratings: a No. 5 iron, a 5-iron, a 7-iron shot, a 4-wood.

Miscellaneous: the first hole, the ninth hole, the 10th hole, the back nine, the final 18, the third round. He won 3 and 2.

ASSOCIATIONS: Professional Golfers’ Association of America (note the apostrophe) or PGA. Headquarters is in Palm Beach Gardens, Fla. Members teach golf at golf shops and teaching facilities across the country.

The PGA Tour is a separate organization made up of competing professional golfers. Use tour (lowercase) on second reference.

The PGA conducts the PGA Championship, the PGA Seniors’ Champion-ship, and the Ryder Cup matches as well as other golf championships not associated with the PGA Tour.

The Ladies Professional Golfers Association (no apostrophe, in keeping with LPGA practice) or LPGA.

SUMMARIES — Stroke (Medal) Play: List scores in ascending order. Use a dash before the final figure, hyphens between others.

On the first day, use the player’s score for the first nine holes, a hyphen, the player’s score for the second nine holes, a dash and the player’s total for the day:

First round:

Jack Nicklaus 35-35 — 70

Johnny Miller 36-35 — 71


On subsequent days, give the player’s scores for each day, then the total for all rounds completed:

Second round:

Jack Nicklaus 70-70 — 140

Johnny Miller 71-70 — 141


Final round, professional tournaments, including prize money:

Jack Nicklaus, $30,000 70-70-70-68 — 278

Johnny Miller, $17,500 71-70-70-69 — 280

Use hometowns, if ordered, only on national championship amateur tournaments. Use home countries, if ordered, only on major international events such as the British Open. If used, the hometown or country is placed on a second line, indented one space:

Arnold Palmer 70-69-68-70—277

United States

Tony Jacklin 71-70-70-70—281


The form for cards:

Par out 444 343 544-35

Watson out 454 333 435-34

Nicklaus out 434 243 544-33

Par in 434 443 454-35 — 70

Watson in 434 342 443-31 — 65

Nicklaus in 433 443 453-33 — 66

SUMMARIES — Match Play: In the first example that follows, the and 1 means that the 18th hole was skipped because Nicklaus had a 2-hole lead after 17. In the second, the match went 18 holes. In the third, a 19th hole was played because the golfers were tied after 18.

Jack Nicklaus def. Lee Trevino, 2 and 1.

Sam Snead def. Ben Hogan, 2-up.

Arnold Palmer def. Johnny Miller, 1-up (19).

Grey Cup The Canadian Football League’s championship game.

Gulfstream Park The racetrack.

gymnastics Scoring is by points. Identify events by name: sidehorse, horizontal bars, etc.

Use a basic summary. Example:

Sidehorse — 1. John Leaper, Penn State, 8.8 points. 2. Jo Jumper, Ohio State, 7.9. 3. Etc.



handball Games are won by the first player to score 21 points or, in the case of a tie breaker, 11 points. Most matches go to the first winner of two games.

Use a match summary. Example:

Bob Richards, Yale, def. Paul Johnson, Dartmouth, 21-18, 21-19.

Tom Brenna, Massachusetts, def. Bill Stevens, Michigan, 21-19, 17-21, 21-20.

handicaps Use figures, hyphenating adjectival forms before a noun: He has a 3 handicap, he is a 3-handicap golfer, a handicap of 3 strokes, a 3-stroke handicap.

hit and run (v.) hit-and-run (n. and adj.) The coach told him to hit and run. He scored on a hit-and-run. She was struck by a hit-and-run driver.

hockey The spellings of some frequently used words:

blue line play off (v.)

crease playoff (n., adj.)

face off (v.) power play

faceoff (n., adj.) power-play goal

goalie red line

goal line short-handed

goal post slap shot

goaltender two-on-one break

penalty box

The term hat trick applies when a player has scored three goals in a game. Use it sparingly, however.

LEAGUE: National Hockey League or NHL.

For NHL subdivisions: the Wales Division of the Campbell Conference, the division, the conference, etc.

SUMMARIES: The visiting team always is listed first in the score by periods.

Note that each goal is numbered according to its sequence in the game.

The figure after the name of a scoring player shows his total goals for the season.

Names in parentheses are players credited with an assist on a goal.

The final figure in the listing of each goal is the number of minutes elapsed in the period when the goal was scored.

Philadelphia 3 0 0 — 3

Edmonton 2 2 1 — 5

First period — 1, Philadelphia, Rick Sutter 1 (Ron Sutter, Smith),:46. 2, Edmonton, Coffey 10 (Huddy, Kurri), 4:22 (pp). 3, Philadelphia, Bergen 4 (Zezel, Crossman), 6:38 (pp). 4, Philadelphia, Craven 4 (Smith, Marsh), 11:32 (sh). 5, Edmonton, Huddy 3 (Coffey, Kurri), 18:23 (pp). Penalties —Poulin, Phi (high-sticking), 3:31; Hughes, Edm (high-stocking), 5:17; Messier, Edm (slashing), 5:59; Crossman, Phi, double minor (holding-unsportsmanlike conduct), 8:32; Hospodar, Phi (slashing), 16:38.

Second period — 6, Edmondton, Anderson 10,:21. 7, Edmonton, Gretzky 15 (Coffey, Huddy), 12:53 (pp). Penalties —Tocchet, Phi (roughing),:48; Fogolin, Edm (roughing),:48; Paterson, Phi (hooking), 12:11; Allison, Phi (slashing), 17:39; Hunter, Edm (roughing),17:39; Lowe, Edm (holding), 18:02; Crossman, Phi (holding), 19:07; Hunter, Edm (holding), 20:00.

Third Period — 8 Edmonton, Gretzky 16 (Messier, Anderson), 3:422 (pp). Penalties — Hospodar, Phi (hooking), 2:46; Hunter, Edm (kneeing), 7:58.

Shots on goal — Philadelphia 10-6-7 23. Edmonton 10-12-1 32.

Penalty shots — Ron Sutter, Phi, 8:47 1st (missed).

Goalies — Philadelphia, Lindbergh at 8:56 2nd; re-entered at start of 3rd, 10-9) Edmonton, Fuhr (23-20). A —17,498. Referee — Kerry Fraser.

STANDINGS: The form:

Wales Conference

Patrick Division

W L T Pts. GF GA

Philadelphia 47 10 14 108 314 184

NY Islanders 45 17 9 99 310 192


horse races Capitalize their formal names: Kentucky Derby, Preakness, Belmont Stakes, etc.

horse racing Some frequently used terms and their definitions:

colt A male horse 4 years old and under.

horse A male horse over 4 years old.

gelding A castrated male horse.

filly A female horse under the age of 5.

mare A female horse 5 years and older.

stallion A male horse used for breeding.

broodmare A female horse used for breeding.

furlong One-eighth of a mile. Race distances are given in furlongs up through seven furlongs, after that in miles, as in one-mile, 1/1-16 miles.

entry Two or more horses owned by same owner running as a single betting interest. In some states two or more horses trained by same person but having different owners also are coupled in betting.

mutuel field Not mutual field. Two or more horses, long shots, that have different owners and trainers. They are coupled as a single betting interest to give the field not more than 12 wagering interests. There cannot be more than 12 betting interests in a race. The bettor wins if either horse finishes in the money.

half-mile pole The pole on a race track that marks one-half mile from the finish. All distances are measured from the finish line, meaning that when a horse reaches the quarter pole, he is one-quarter mile from the finish.

bug boy An apprentice jockey, so-called because of the asterisk beside the individual’s name in a program. It means that the jockey’s mount gets a weight allowance.

horses’ names Capitalize. See animals in main section.


IC4A See Intercollegiate Association of Amateur Athletes of America.

indoor (adj.) indoors (adv.) He plays indoor tennis. He went indoors.

Intercollegiate Association of Amateur Athletes of America In general, spell out on first reference.

A phrase such as IC4A tournament may be used on first reference, however, to avoid a cumbersome lead. If this is done, provide the full name later in the story.


judo Use the basic summary format by weight divisions for major tournaments; use the match summary for dual and lesser meets.


Kentucky Derby The Derby on second reference. An exception to normal second-reference practice.

See capitalization in main section.


lacrosse Scoring in goals, worth one point each.

The playing field is 110 yards long. The goals are 80 yards apart, with 15 yards of playing area behind each goal.

A match consists of four 15-minute periods. Overtimes of varying lengths may be played to break a tie.

Adapt the summary format in hockey.

Ladies Professional Golf Association No apostrophe after Ladies. In general, spell out on first reference.

A phrase such as LPGA tournament may be used on first reference to avoid a cumbersome lead. If this is done, provide the full name later in the story.

left hand (n.) left-handed (adj.) left-hander (n.)


marathon Use the formats illustrated in the cross country and track and field entries.

mare A female horse 5 years and older.

match summary This format for summarizing sports events applies to one vs. one contests such as tennis, match play golf, etc.

Give a competitor’s name, followed either by a hometown or by a college or club affiliation. For competitors from outside the United States, a country name alone is sufficient in summaries sent for domestic use.

Jimmy Connors, Belleville, Ill., def. Manuel Orantes, Spain, 2-6, 6-3, 6-2, 6-1.

metric system See main section.

motorboat racing Scoring may be posted in miles per hour, points or laps, depending on the competition.

In general, use the basic summary format. For some major events, adapt the basic summary to paragraph form under a dateline. See the auto racing entry for an example.

motorcycle racing Follow the formats shown under auto racing.


National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing Or NASCAR.

National Collegiate Athletic Association Or NCAA.

numerals See the main section on general use and entries on betting odds, handicaps and scores.


odds See betting odds.


pingpong A synonym for table tennis.

The trademark name is Ping-Pong.

play off (v.) playoff, playoffs (n. and adj.) The noun and adjective forms are exceptions to Webster’s New World Dictionary, in keeping with widespread practice in the sports world.

postseason, preseason No hyphen.


racket Not racquet, for the light bat used in tennis and badminton.

racquetball Amateur games are played to 15 points in a best-of-three match. Professional matches are played to 11 points, unless it is necessary to continue until one player has a two-point spread. Most matches go to the winner of three of five games.

Use a match summary.

record Avoid the redundant new record.

right hand (n.) right-handed (adj.) right-hander (n.)

rodeo Use the basic summary format by classes, listing points.

rowing Scoring is in minutes, seconds and tenths of a second. Extend to hundredths if available.

Use a basic summary. An example, for a major event where qualifying heats are required:

Single Sculls Heats (first two in each heat qualify for Monday’s quarterfinals, losers go to repechage Friday): Heat 1 — 1, Peter Smith, Australia, 4:24.7. 2. Etc. Heat 2 — 1, John Jones, Canada, 4:26.3. 72, Etc.

runner-up, runners-up


scores Use figures exclusively, placing a hyphen between the totals of the winning and losing teams: The Reds defeated the Red Sox 4-3, the Giants scored a 12-6 football victory over the Cardinals, the golfer had a 5 on the first hole but finished with a 2-under-par score.

Use a comma in this format: Boston 6, Baltimore 5.

See individual listings for each sport for further details.

skating, figure Scoring includes both ordinals and points.

Use a basic summary. Examples:


(After 3 compulsory figures)

Sergei Volkov, Russia, 19-5 ordinals, 44.76 points. 2, John Curry, Britain, 21.5, 44.96. 3, Etc.

Women’s Final

Dorothy Hamill, Riverside, Conn., 9.0 ordinals, 215 points; 2, Dianne de Leeuw, Netherlands, 20.0, 236; 3, Etc.

skating, speed Scoring is in minutes, seconds and tenths of a second. Extend to hundredths if available.

Use a basic summary.

ski, skis, skier, skied, skiing Also: ski jump, ski jumping.

skiing Identify events as: men’s downhill, women’s slalom, etc. In ski jumping, note style where two jumps and points are posted.

Use a basic summary. Example:

90-meter special jumping — 1, Karl Schnabel, Austria, 320 and 318 feet, 234.8 points. 2, Toni Innauer, Austria, 377-299, 232.9. 3, Etc. Also; 27, Bob Smith, Hanover, N.H., 312-280, 201. 29, Etc.

sports editor Capitalize as a formal title before a name. See titles in main section.

sports sponsorship For the titles or names of sports events, use the commercial sponsor’s name only if there is no other, previously established name commonly accepted for the event. Example: Sugar Bowl, but not USF&G Sugar Bowl; Winston 500, but not Pepsi Firecracker 400.

stadium, stadiums Capitalize only when part of a proper name: Yankee Stadium.

swimming Scoring is in minutes, if appropriate, seconds and tenths of a second. Extend to hundredths if available.

Most events are measured in metric units.

Identify events as men’s 440-meter relay, women’s 100-meter backstroke, etc., on first reference. Condense to men’s 440 relay, women’s 100 backstroke on second reference.

See the track and field entry for the style on relay teams and events where a record is broken

Use a basic summary. Examples, where qualifying heats are required:

Men’s 200-meter Backstroke Heats (fastest eight qualify for final Saturday night) heat 1 — 1, John Naber, USC, 2:03.25; 2, Zoltan Verraszio, Hungary, 2:03.50; 3. Etc.

For diving events, adapt the skating, figure entry.


table tennis See pingpong.

tennis The scoring units are points, games, sets and matches.

A player wins a point if his opponent fails to return the ball, hits it into the net or hits it out of bounds. A player also wins a point if his opponent is serving and fails to put the ball into play after two attempts (double faults, in tennis terms).

A player must win four points to win a game. In tennis scoring, both players begin at love, or zero, and advance to 15, 30, 40 and game. (The numbers 15, 30 and 40 have no point value as such — they are simply tennis terminology for 1 point, 2 points and 3 points.) The server’s score always is called out first. If a game is tied at 40-all, or deuce, play continues until one player has a two-point margin.

A set is won if a player wins six games before his opponent has won five. If a set becomes tied at five games apiece, it goes to the first player to win seven games. If two players who were tied at five games apiece also tie at six games apiece, they normally play a tiebreaker — a game that goes to the first player to win seven points. In some cases, however, the rules call for a player to win by two games.

A match may be either a best-of-three contest that goes to the first player or team to win two sets, or a best-of-five contest that goes to the first player or team to win three sets.

Set scores would be reported this way: Chris Evert Lloyd defeated Sue Barker 6-0, 3-6, 6-4. Indicate tiebreakers in parentheses after the set score: 7-6, (11-9).

SUMMARIES: Winners always are listed first in agate summaries. An example:

Men’s Singles

First Round

Jimmy Connors, Belleville, Ill., def. Manuet Orantes, Spain, 2-6, 6-3, 6-2, 6-1.

Bjorn Borg, Sweden, def. Jim Green, New York (default).

Arthur Ashe, New York, def. James Peters, Chicago, 6-3, 4-3 (retired).

track and field Scoring is in distance or time, depending on the event.

Most events are measured in metric units. For those meets that include feet, make sure the measurement is clearly stated, as in men’s 100-meter dash, women’s 880-yard run, etc.

For time events, spell out minutes and seconds on first reference, as in 3-minutes, 26.1 seconds. Subsequent times in stories and all times in agate require a colon and decimal point: 3:34.4. For a marathon, it would be 2 hours, 11 minutes, 5.01 seconds on first reference then the form 2:12:4.06 for later listings.

Do not use a colon before times given only in seconds and tenths of a second. Use progressions such as 6.0 seconds, 9.4, 10.1, etc. Extend times to hundredths, if available: 9.45.

In running events, the first event should be spelled out, as in men’s 100-meter dash. Later references can be condensed to phrases such as the 200, the 400, etc.

For hurdle and relay events, the progression can be: 100-meter hurdles, 200 hurdles, etc.

For field events — those that do not involve running — use these forms: 26 1/2 for 26 feet, one-half inch; 25-10 1/2 for 25 feet, 10 1/2 inches, etc.

In general, use a basic summary. For the style when a record is broken, note the mile event in the example below. For the style in listing relay teams, note 1,000-meter relay.

60-yard dash — 1, Steve Williams, Florida TC, 6.0 2, Hasley Crawford, Philadelphia Pioneer, 6.2 3, Mike McFarland, Chicago TC. 6.2 3. Etc.

100 — 1, Steve Williams, Florida TC 10.1. 2. Etc.

Mile — 1, Filbert Bayi, Tanzania, 3:55.1, meet record, old record 3:59, Jim Beatty, Los Angeles TC. Feb. 27, 1963; 2. Paul Cummings, Beverly Hills TC. 3:56.1; 3, Etc.

Women’s 880 — 1, Johanna Forman, Falmouth TC. 2:07.9. 2. Etc.

1,600-meter relay — 1, St. John’s, Jon Kennedy, Doug Johnson, Gary Gordon, Ordner Emanuel, 3:21.9. 2. Brown, 3:23.5. 3. Fordham, 3:24.1. 4. Etc.

Team scoring — Chicago TC 32. Philadelphia Pioneer 29, Etc.

Where qualifying heats are required:

Men’s 100-meter heats (first two in each heat qualify for Friday’s semifinals): Heat 1 — 1, Steve Williams, Florida TC. 10.1. 2. Etc.


volley, volleys

volleyball Games are won by the first team to score 15 points, unless it is necessary to continue until one team has a two-point spread.

Use a match summary. Example:

National AAU Men’s Volleyball

First Round

New York AC def. Illinois AC 15-7, 12-15, 19-17.

Vesper Boat Club, Philadelphia, def. Harvard 15-7, 15-8.


water polo Scoring is by goals. List team scores. Example:

World Water Polo Championship

First Round

United States 7, Canada 1

Britain 5, France 3


water skiing Scoring is in points. Use a basic summary. Example:

World Water Skiing Championships


Overall — 1, George Jones, Canada, 1,987 points. 2, Phil Brown, Britain, 1,756. 3, Etc.

Slalom — 1, George Jones, Canada, 73 buoys (two rounds). 2, Etc.

weightlifting Identify events by weight classes. Where both pounds and kilograms are available, use both figures with kilograms in parentheses, as shown in the examples.

Use a basic summary. Example:

Flyweight (114.5 lbs.) — 1, Zygmont Smalcerz, Poland, 744 pounds (337.5 kg). 2, Lajos Szuecs, Hungary, 728 (330 kg). 3, Etc.

World Series Or the Series on second reference. A rare exception to the general principles under capitalization.

wrestling Identify events by weight division.


yachting Use a basic summary, identifying events by classes.

yard Equal to 3 feet.

The metric equivalent is approximately 0.91 meters.

To convert to meters, multiply by .91 (5 yards x .91 = 4.55 meters).

See foot; meter; and distances.

yard lines Use figures to indicate the dividing lines on a footbal field and distance traveled: 4-yard line, 40-yard line, he plunged in from the 2, he ran 6 yards, a 7-yard gain.

yearling An animal 1 year old or in its second year. The birthdays of all thoroughbred horses arbitrarily are set at Jan. 1. On that date, any foal born in the preceding year is reckoned 1 year old.