U In Burmese names U is an honorific prefix. It means something like Mr., and is used for adult males only. It should not be used. For example, U Nu is only Nu in all references. Women retain their given names after marriage. No courtesy titles apply.

U-boat A German submarine. Anything referring to a submarine should be submarine unless directly referring to a German vessel of World War I or II vintage.

UFO, UFOs Acceptable in all references for unidentified flying object(s).

UHF Acceptable in all references for ultrahigh frequency.

Ukrainian Catholic Church See Eastern Rite churches.

ukulele

Ulster Historically, one of the four Irish provinces, covering nine counties. Six of the counties became Northern Ireland, three became part of the Republic of Ireland. Avoid use as a synonym for Northern Ireland. See United Kingdom.

ultra- The rules in prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen. Some examples:

ultramodern ultrasonic

ultranationalism ultraviolet

ultrahigh frequency UHF is acceptable in all references.

un- The rules in prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen. Some examples:

un-American unnecessary

unarmed unshaven

U.N. Used as an adjective, but not as a noun, for United Nations.

See United Nations.

Uncle Sam

Uncle Tom A term of contempt applied to a black person, taken from the main character in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel "Uncle Tom’s Cabin." It describes the practice of kowtowing to whites to curry favor.

Do not apply it to an individual. It carries potentially libelous connotations of having sold one’s convictions for money, prestige or political influence.

under- The rules in prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen. Some examples:

underdog undersheriff

underground undersold

undersecretary One word. See titles.

under way Two words in virtually all uses: The project is under way. The naval maneuvers are under way.

One word only when used as an adjective before a noun in a nautical sense: an underway flotilla.

unemployment rate In the United States, this estimate of the number of unemployed residents seeking work is compiled monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, an agency of the Labor Department.

Each month the bureau selects a nationwide cross section of the population and conducts interviews to determine the size of the U.S. work force. The work force is defined as the number of people with jobs and the number looking for jobs.

The unemployment rate is expressed as a percentage figure. The essential calculation involves dividing the total work force into the number of people looking for jobs, followed by adjustments to reflect variable factors such as seasonal trends.

UNESCO Acceptable on first reference for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, but a subsequent reference should give the full name.

UNICEF Acceptable in all references for the United Nations Children’s Fund. The words International and Emergency, originally part of the name, have been dropped.

unidentified flying object(s) UFO and UFOs are acceptable in all references.

Uniform Code of Military Justice The laws covering members of the U.S. armed forces.

uninterested See the disinterested, uninterested entry.

union Capitalize when used as a proper name of the Northern states during the Civil War: The Union defeated the Confederacy.

union names The formal names of unions may be condensed to conventionally accepted short forms that capitalize characteristic words from the full name followed by union in lowercase.

Follow union practice in the use of the word worker in shortened forms. Among major unions, all except the United Steelworkers use two words: United Auto Workers, United Mine Workers, etc.

When worker is used generically, make autoworkers one word in keeping with widespread practice; use two words for other job descriptions: bakery workers, mine workers, steel workers.

See the local of a union entry and the individual entries for these unions frequently in the news:

Amalgamated Transit Union

American Federation of Government Employees

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations

American Federation of Musicians

American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees

American Federation of Teachers

American Federation of Television and Radio Artists

American Postal Workers Union

Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ International Union of America

Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’ International Union of America

Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employes

Communications Workers of America

Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union

International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers

International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades of the United States and Canada

International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America

International Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union

International Longshoremen’s Association

Laborers’ International Union of North America

National Association of Letter Carriers

Newspaper Guild, The

Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union

Sheet Metal Workers International Association

Transportation Communications International Union

Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees

United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America

United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America

United Food and Commercial Workers International Union

United Mine Workers of America

United Steelworkers of America

union shop See closed shop.

unique It means one of a kind. Do not describe something as rather unique or most unique.

United Airlines A subsidiary of UAL Corp.

Headquarters is in Chicago.

United Arab Emirates Do not abbreviate, even in datelines.

Use U.A.E. (with periods) if quoted matter requires the abbreviation.

United Automobile, Aerospace and Agriculture Implement Workers of America The shortened forms United Auto Workers and United Auto Workers union are acceptable in all references.

UAW and Auto Workers are acceptable on second reference.

Use autoworker or autoworkers (one word, lowercase) in generic references to workers in the auto industry.

Headquarters is in Detroit.

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America The shortened form Carpenters union is acceptable in all references.

Headquarters is in Washington.

United Church of Christ See Congregational churches.

United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America The shortened form Electrical Workers union is acceptable in all references.

Headquarters is in New York.

United Food and Commercial Workers International Union Formed by the merger of the Retail Clerks International Union and the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America.

The shortened form Food and Commercial Workers union is acceptable in all references.

Headquarters is in Washington.

United Kingdom It consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Great Britain (or Britain) consists of England, Scotland and Wales.

Ireland is independent of the United Kingdom.

See datelines and Ireland.

United Methodist Church See Methodist churches.

United Mine Workers of America The shortened forms United Mine Workers and United Mine Workers union are acceptable in all references.

UMW and Mine Workers are acceptable on second reference.

Use mine workers or miners, lowercase, in generic references to workers in the industry.

Headquarters is in Washington.

United Nations Spell out when used as a noun. Use U.N. (no space) only as an adjective.

The periods in U.N. for consistency with U.S., are an exception to the first listing in Webster’s New World Dictionary.

In datelines:

UNITED NATIONS (AP) —

Use U.N. General Assembly, U.N. Secretariat and U.N. Security Council in first references not under a United Nations dateline.

General Assembly, the Secretariat and Security Council are acceptable in all references under a United Nations dateline and on second reference under other datelines.

Lowercase the assembly and the council when they stand alone.

See UNESCO and UNICEF.

United Presbyterian Church in the United States of America It no longer exists. See Presbyterian churches entry.

United Press International A privately owned news agency formed in 1958 as a merger of United Press and International News Service.

Use the full name on first reference. UPI is acceptable on second reference.

The address is 1400 Eye St., Washington, D.C., 20005. The telephone number is (202) 898-8000.

United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of America The shortened forms United Rubber Workers and United Rubber Workers union are acceptable in all references.

Capitalize Rubber Workers in references to the union or its members.

Use rubber workers, lowercase, in generic references to workers in the rubber industry.

Headquarters is in Akron, Ohio.

United Service Organizations USO is acceptable on second reference.

United States Spell out when used as a noun. Use U.S. (no space) only as an adjective.

For organization with names beginning with the words United States, see entries alphabetized under U.S.

United Steelworkers of America The shortened forms United Steelworkers and United Steelworkers union are acceptable in all references.

Capitalize Steelworkers in references to the union or its members.

Use steel workers (two words, lowercase) in generic references to workers in the steel industry. (Many Steelworkers are employed in other industries and thus are not steel workers.)

Headquarters is in Pittsburgh.

United Synagogue of America Not synagogues. See Jewish congregations.

up- The rules in prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen. Some examples:

upend upstate

upgrade uptown

-up Follow Webster’s New World Dictionary. Hyphenate if not listed there.

Some frequently used words (all are nouns, some also are used as adjectives):

breakup makeup

call-up mix-up

change-up mock-up

checkup pileup

cleanup push-up

close-up roundup

cover-up runners-up

crackup setup

follow-up shake-up

frame-up shape-up

grown-up smashup

holdup speedup

letup tie-up

lineup walk-up

windup

Use two words when any of these occurs as a verb.

See suffixes.

UPI Acceptable on second references for United Press International.

uppercase One word (n., v., adj.) when referring to the use of capital letters. An exception to Webster’s New World in keeping with printers’ practice.

upside down (adv.) upside-down (adj.) The car turned upside down. The book is upside-down.

upstate Always lowercase: upstate New York.

upward Not upwards.

U.S. Used as an adjective, but not as a noun, for United States.

U.S. Air Force See air force; military academies; and military titles.

US Airways Formerly USAir.

Headquarters is in Arlington, Va.

U.S. Army See army; military academies; and military titles.

U.S. Coast Guard See coast guard; military academies; and military titles.

U.S. Conference of Mayors The members are the mayors of cities with 30,000 or more residents. See National League of Cities.

Use the conference or the mayors’ conference on second reference.

There is no organization with the name National Mayors’ Conference.

U.S. Court of Appeals The court is divided into 13 circuits as follows:

District of Columbia Circuit.

Federal Circuit.

1st Circuit: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Puerto Rico. Based in Boston.

2nd Circuit: Connecticut, New York, Vermont. Based in New York.

3rd Circuit: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virgin Islands. Based in Philadelphia.

4th Circuit: Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia. Based in Richmond, Va.

5th Circuit: Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas. Based in New Orleans.

6th Circuit: Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee. Based in Cincinnati.

7th Circuit: Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin. Based in Chicago.

8th Circuit: Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota. Based in St. Louis.

9th Circuit: Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Guam. Based in San Francisco.

10th Circuit: Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming. Based in Denver.

11th Circuit: Alabama, Florida and Georgia. Based in Atlanta.

The courts do not always sit in the cities where they are based. Sessions may be held in other major cities within each region.

REFERENCE FORMS: A phrase such as a federal appeals court is acceptable on first reference.

On first reference to the full name, use U.S. Court of Appeals or a full name: 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals or the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 8th Circuit.

U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals without a circuit number is a misnomer and should not be used.

In shortened and subsequent references: the Court of Appeals, the 2nd Circuit, the appeals court, the appellate court(s), the circuit court(s), the court.

Do not create nonexistent entities such as the San Francisco Court of Appeals. Make it the U.S. Court of Appeals in San Francisco.

JURISTS: The formal title for the jurists on the court is judge: U.S. Circuit Judge Homer Thornberry is preferred to U.S. Appeals Judge Homer Thornberry, but either is acceptable.

See judge.

U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit Commonly known as the CAFC, it replaced U.S. Court of Claims and U.S. Court of Customs and Patent Appeals. It handles suits against the federal government and appeals involving customs, patents and copyright. It is based in Washington.

U.S. Court of Military Appeals This court, not part of the judicial branch as such, is a civilian body established by Congress to hear appeals from actions of the Defense Department. It is based in Washington.

U.S. Customs Court This court, based in New York City, handles disputes over customs duties that arise at any U.S. port of entry.

U.S. District Courts There are 94. In shortened and subsequent references: the District Court, the District Courts, the court.

Judge is the formal title for District Court jurists: U.S. District Judge Frank Johnson. See judge.

user friendly Avoid. For example: The system is easy to use, not the system is user friendly.

usher Use for both men and women.

U.S. Information Agency Formerly the U.S. Communication Agency.

Use U.S. Information Agency on first reference. Lowercase the communication agency or the agency in second references.

U.S. Military Academy See military academies.

U.S. Navy See navy; military academies; and military titles.

U.S. Postal Service Use U.S. Postal Service or the Postal Service on first reference. Retain capitalization of Postal Service in subsequent references to the agency.

Lowercase the service when it stands alone. Lowercase post office in generic references to the agency and to an individual office: I went to the post office.

U.S. Postal Service Directory of Post Offices The reference for U.S. place names not covered in this book.

USS For United States Ship, Steamer or Steamship, preceding the name of a vessel: the USS Iowa.

In datelines:

ABOARD USS IOWA (AP) —

U.S. Supreme Court See Supreme Court of the United States.

U.S. Tax Court This is an administrative body within the U.S. Treasury Department rather than part of the judicial branch. It handles appeals in tax cases.

USX Corp. Formerly U.S. Steel.

Utah Do not abbreviate. See state names.

U-turn (n. and adj.)