UIn Burmese names U is an honorific prefix. It means something like Mr., and is used for adult males only. It should not be used. For example, U Nu is only Nu in all references. Women retain their given names after marriage. No courtesy titles apply.
U-boatA German submarine. Anything referring to a submarine should be submarine unless directly referring to a German vessel of World War I or II vintage.
UFO, UFOsAcceptable in all references for unidentified flying object(s).
UHFAcceptable in all references for ultrahigh frequency.
Ukrainian Catholic ChurchSee Eastern Rite churches.
UlsterHistorically, one of the four Irish provinces, covering nine counties. Six of the counties became Northern Ireland, three became part of the Republic of Ireland. Avoid use as a synonym for Northern Ireland. See United Kingdom.
ultra-The rules in prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen. Some examples:
ultrahigh frequencyUHF is acceptable in all references.
un-The rules in prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen. Some examples:
U.N.Used as an adjective, but not as a noun, for United Nations.
Uncle TomA term of contempt applied to a black person, taken from the main character in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel "Uncle Tom’s Cabin." It describes the practice of kowtowing to whites to curry favor.
Do not apply it to an individual. It carries potentially libelous connotations of having sold one’s convictions for money, prestige or political influence.
under-The rules in prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen. Some examples:
undersecretaryOne word. See titles.
under wayTwo words in virtually all uses: The project is under way. The naval maneuvers are under way.
One word only when used as an adjective before a noun in a nautical sense:an underway flotilla.
unemployment rateIn the United States, this estimate of the number of unemployed residents seeking work is compiled monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, an agency of the Labor Department.
Each month the bureau selects a nationwide cross section of the population and conducts interviews to determine the size of the U.S. work force. The work force is defined as the number of people with jobs and the number looking for jobs.
The unemployment rate is expressed as a percentage figure. The essential calculation involves dividing the total work force into the number of people looking for jobs, followed by adjustments to reflect variable factors such as seasonal trends.
UNESCOAcceptable on first reference for the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, but a subsequent reference should give the full name.
UNICEFAcceptable in all references for the United Nations Children’s Fund. The words International and Emergency, originally part of the name, have been dropped.
unidentified flying object(s)UFO and UFOs are acceptable in all references.
Uniform Code of Military JusticeThe laws covering members of the U.S. armed forces.
uninterestedSee the disinterested, uninterested entry.
unionCapitalize when used as a proper name of the Northern states during the Civil War: The Union defeated the Confederacy.
union namesThe formal names of unions may be condensed to conventionally accepted short forms that capitalize characteristic words from the full name followed by union in lowercase.
Follow union practice in the use of the wordworker in shortened forms. Among major unions, all except the United Steelworkers use two words: United Auto Workers, United Mine Workers, etc.
Whenworker is used generically, make autoworkers one word in keeping with widespread practice; use two words for other job descriptions: bakery workers, mine workers, steel workers.
See thelocal of a union entry and the individual entries for these unions frequently in the news:
Amalgamated Transit Union
American Federation of Government Employees
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations
American Federation of Musicians
American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees
American Federation of Teachers
American Federation of Television and Radio Artists
American Postal Workers Union
Bakery and Confectionery Workers’ International Union of America
Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers’ International Union of America
Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employes
Communications Workers of America
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders International Union
International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades of the United States and Canada
International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America
International Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union
International Longshoremen’s Association
Laborers’ International Union of North America
National Association of Letter Carriers
Newspaper Guild, The
Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union
Sheet Metal Workers International Association
Transportation Communications International Union
Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees
United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America
United Food and Commercial Workers International Union
United Mine Workers of America
United Steelworkers of America
union shopSee closed shop.
uniqueIt means one of a kind. Do not describe something as rather unique or most unique.
United AirlinesA subsidiary of UAL Corp.
Headquarters is in Chicago.
United Arab EmiratesDo not abbreviate, even in datelines.
UseU.A.E. (with periods) if quoted matter requires the abbreviation.
United Automobile, Aerospace and Agriculture Implement Workers of AmericaThe shortened forms United Auto Workers and United Auto Workers union are acceptable in all references.
UAWand Auto Workers are acceptable on second reference.
Useautoworker or autoworkers (one word, lowercase) in generic references to workers in the auto industry.
Headquarters is in Detroit.
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of AmericaThe shortened form Carpenters union is acceptable in all references.
Headquarters is in Washington.
United Church of ChristSee Congregational churches.
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of AmericaThe shortened form Electrical Workers union is acceptable in all references.
Headquarters is in New York.
United Food and Commercial Workers International UnionFormed by the merger of the Retail Clerks International Union and the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America.
The shortened formFood and Commercial Workers union is acceptable in all references.
Headquarters is in Washington.
United KingdomIt consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Great Britain (or Britain) consists of England, Scotland and Wales.
Ireland is independent of the United Kingdom.
Seedatelines and Ireland.
United Methodist ChurchSee Methodist churches.
United Mine Workers of AmericaThe shortened forms United Mine Workers and United Mine Workers union are acceptable in all references.
UMWand Mine Workers are acceptable on second reference.
Usemine workers or miners, lowercase, in generic references to workers in the industry.
Headquarters is in Washington.
United NationsSpell out when used as a noun. Use U.N. (no space) only as an adjective.
The periods inU.N. for consistency with U.S., are an exception to the first listing in Webster’s New World Dictionary.
UNITED NATIONS (AP) —
UseU.N. General Assembly, U.N. Secretariat and U.N. Security Council in first references not under a United Nations dateline.
General Assembly, the Secretariatand Security Council are acceptable in all references under a United Nations dateline and on second reference under other datelines.
Lowercasethe assembly and the council when they stand alone.
SeeUNESCO and UNICEF.
United Presbyterian Church in the United States of AmericaIt no longer exists. See Presbyterian churches entry.
United Press InternationalA privately owned news agency formed in 1958 as a merger of United Press and International News Service.
Use the full name on first reference.UPI is acceptable on second reference.
The address is 1400 Eye St., Washington, D.C., 20005. The telephone number is (202) 898-8000.
United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of AmericaThe shortened forms United Rubber Workers and United Rubber Workers union are acceptable in all references.
CapitalizeRubber Workers in references to the union or its members.
Userubber workers, lowercase, in generic references to workers in the rubber industry.
Headquarters is in Akron, Ohio.
United Service OrganizationsUSO is acceptable on second reference.
United StatesSpell out when used as a noun. Use U.S. (no space) only as an adjective.
For organization with names beginning with the words United States, see entries alphabetized under U.S.
United Steelworkers of AmericaThe shortened forms United Steelworkers and United Steelworkers union are acceptable in all references.
CapitalizeSteelworkers in references to the union or its members.
Usesteel workers (two words, lowercase) in generic references to workers in the steel industry. (Many Steelworkers are employed in other industries and thus are not steel workers.)
Headquarters is in Pittsburgh.
United Synagogue of AmericaNot synagogues. See Jewish congregations.
up-The rules in prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen. Some examples:
-upFollow Webster’s New World Dictionary. Hyphenate if not listed there.
Some frequently used words (all are nouns, some also are used as adjectives):
Use two words when any of these occurs as a verb.
UPIAcceptable on second references for United Press International.
uppercaseOne word (n., v., adj.) when referring to the use of capital letters. An exception to Webster’s New World in keeping with printers’ practice.
upside down(adv.) upside-down (adj.) The car turned upside down. The book is upside-down.
upstateAlways lowercase: upstate New York.
U.S.Used as an adjective, but not as a noun, for United States.
U.S. Air ForceSee air force; military academies; and military titles.
US AirwaysFormerly USAir.
Headquarters is in Arlington, Va.
U.S. ArmySee army; military academies; and military titles.
U.S. Coast GuardSee coast guard; military academies; and military titles.
U.S. Conference of MayorsThe members are the mayors of cities with 30,000 or more residents. See National League of Cities.
Usethe conference or the mayors’ conference on second reference.
There is no organization with the nameNational Mayors’ Conference.
U.S. Court of AppealsThe court is divided into 13 circuits as follows:
District of Columbia Circuit.
1st Circuit: Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Puerto Rico. Based in Boston.
2nd Circuit: Connecticut, New York, Vermont. Based in New York.
3rd Circuit: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virgin Islands. Based in Philadelphia.
4th Circuit: Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia. Based in Richmond, Va.
5th Circuit: Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas. Based in New Orleans.
6th Circuit: Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee. Based in Cincinnati.
7th Circuit: Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin. Based in Chicago.
8th Circuit: Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota. Based in St. Louis.
9th Circuit: Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Guam. Based in San Francisco.
10th Circuit: Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming. Based in Denver.
11th Circuit: Alabama, Florida and Georgia. Based in Atlanta.
The courts do not always sit in the cities where they are based. Sessions may be held in other major cities within each region.
REFERENCE FORMS: A phrase such as afederal appeals court is acceptable on first reference.
On first reference to the full name, useU.S. Court of Appeals or a full name: 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals or the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 8th Circuit.
U.S. Circuit Court of Appealswithout a circuit number is a misnomer and should not be used.
In shortened and subsequent references:the Court of Appeals, the 2nd Circuit, the appeals court, the appellate court(s), the circuit court(s), the court.
Do not create nonexistent entities such asthe San Francisco Court of Appeals. Make it the U.S. Court of Appeals in San Francisco.
JURISTS: The formal title for the jurists on the court isjudge: U.S. Circuit Judge Homer Thornberry is preferred to U.S. Appeals Judge Homer Thornberry, but either is acceptable.
U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal CircuitCommonly known as the CAFC, it replaced U.S. Court of Claims and U.S. Court of Customs and Patent Appeals. It handles suits against the federal government and appeals involving customs, patents and copyright. It is based in Washington.
U.S. Court of Military AppealsThis court, not part of the judicial branch as such, is a civilian body established by Congress to hear appeals from actions of the Defense Department. It is based in Washington.
U.S. Customs CourtThis court, based in New York City, handles disputes over customs duties that arise at any U.S. port of entry.
U.S. District CourtsThere are 94. In shortened and subsequent references: the District Court, the District Courts, the court.
Judgeis the formal title for District Court jurists: U.S. District Judge Frank Johnson. See judge.
user friendlyAvoid. For example: The system is easy to use, not the system is user friendly.
usherUse for both men and women.
U.S. Information AgencyFormerly the U.S. Communication Agency.
UseU.S. Information Agency on first reference. Lowercase the communication agency or the agency in second references.
U.S. Military AcademySee military academies.
U.S. NavySee navy; military academies; and military titles.
U.S. Postal ServiceUse U.S. Postal Service or the Postal Service on first reference. Retain capitalization of Postal Service in subsequent references to the agency.
Lowercasethe service when it stands alone. Lowercase post office in generic references to the agency and to an individual office: I went to the post office.
U.S. Postal Service Directory of Post OfficesThe reference for U.S. place names not covered in this book.
USSFor United States Ship, Steamer or Steamship, preceding the name of a vessel: the USS Iowa.
ABOARD USS IOWA (AP) —
U.S. Supreme CourtSee Supreme Court of the United States.
U.S. Tax CourtThis is an administrative body within the U.S. Treasury Department rather than part of the judicial branch. It handles appeals in tax cases.
USX Corp.Formerly U.S. Steel.
UtahDo not abbreviate. See state names.
U-turn(n. and adj.)